List of instruments
|A/D Data Logging Card||A/D Data Logger||Analog to Digital cards used for logging data from analog sensors (voltages, etc)|
|Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes||AOO||Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes are instrument for monitoring oxygen in the environment. For instrument information see the Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes Product Brochure.|
|Aanderaa Recording Current Meter||Aanderaa Current Meter||The Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) is a self-contained instrument that can be moored in the sea and record ocean current, water temperature, conductivity of the water and depth of the instrument. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. (more from Aanderaa).|
|Aanderaa Tide Gauge||Aanderaa Tide Gauge||The Aanderaa tide gauge measures and records the time and height of the sea surface as it changes with the tides.|
|AC 9||AC-9||"The WET Labs AC-9 is a type of in-situ spectrophotometer that simultaneously determines the spectral transmittance and spectral absorption of water over nine wavelengths. The unit offers compact size, high precision, and excellent stability in providing a method for determining the absorption (a(l)) and beam attenuation (c(l)) coefficients. The AC-9 employs a 25-cm pathlength for effective measurement of the cleanest natural waters. The unit is also available in a 10-cm pathlength configuration." (more from WET Labs)|
|Accelerator Mass Spectrometer||AMS||An AMS measures "long-lived radionuclides that occur naturally in our environment. AMS uses a particle accelerator in conjunction with ion sources, large magnets, and detectors to separate out interferences and count single atoms in the presence of 1x1015 (a thousand million million) stable atoms, measuring the mass-to-charge ratio of the products of sample molecule disassociation, atom ionization and ion acceleration." AMS permits ultra low-level measurement of compound concentrations and isotope ratios that traditional alpha-spectrometry cannot provide. (more from Purdue University)|
|Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler||ADCP||The ADCP measures water currents with sound, using a principle of sound waves called the Doppler effect. A sound wave has a higher frequency, or pitch, when it moves to you than when it moves away. You hear the Doppler effect in action when a car speeds past with a characteristic building of sound that fades when the car passes. The ADCP works by transmitting "pings" of sound at a constant frequency into the water. (The pings are so highly pitched that humans and even dolphins can't hear them.) As the sound waves travel, they ricochet off particles suspended in the moving water, and reflect back to the instrument. Due to the Doppler effect, sound waves bounced back from a particle moving away from the profiler have a slightly lowered frequency when they return. Particles moving toward the instrument send back higher frequency waves. The difference in frequency between the waves the profiler sends out and the waves it receives is called the Doppler shift. The instrument uses this shift to calculate how fast the particle and the water around it are moving. Sound waves that hit particles far from the profiler take longer to come back than waves that strike close by. By measuring the time it takes for the waves to bounce back and the Doppler shift, the profiler can measure current speed at many different depths with each series of pings. (More from WHOI instruments listing).|
|Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler bio||ADCP-bio||Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler used to scan for plankton concentrations.|
|Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer||AVHRR||"The AVHRR instrument consists of an array of small sensors that record (as digital numbers) the amount of visible and infrared radiation reflected and (or) emitted from the Earth's surface" (more information).|
|Aerosol Sampler||Aerosol_Sampler||A device that collects a sample of aerosol (dry particles or liquid droplets) from the atmosphere.|
|Aggregate Camera||AggrCam||A type of underwater camera system.|
|Air Temperature Sensor||AirTemp||Measures air temperature|
|Altimeter||Altimeter||An instrument that measures height above a fixed surface. The data can be used to map ocean-surface topography and generate gridded surface height fields.|
|Alvin Heatflow Probe 0.66m||Alvin Heatflow Probe 0.66m||The Heatflow probe is a temperature measuring device on the submersible Alvin. It is a 0.6 m titanium tube containing a linear heater and 5 thermistors. The Heatflow probe is designed to measure temperature gradients when inserted into soft sediments.|
|Alvin High Temperature Probe||Alvin High Temp Probe||A temperature measuring device on the submersible Alvin. The high temperature probe is capable of reading in-situ water temperatures from 0 to 450 degrees C.|
|Alvin tube core||Tube Core||A plastic tube, about 40 cm (16 inches) long, is pushed into the sediment by Alvin's manipulator arm to collect a sediment core.|
|Anemometer||Anemometer||An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind. It is commonly used to measure wind speed. Aboard research vessels, it is often mounted with other meteorological instruments and sensors.|
|Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer||APIMS||The Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer measures dimethylsulfide (DMS) in ambient air and in sea water. This instrument is used to measure DMS fluxes directly in the marine boundary layer.|
|Atmospheric Sampling Mast||Atm Sampling Mast||Atmospheric Sampling Mast - used to collect airborne samples for analysis such as in aerosol studies.|
|Automated DNA Sequencer||Automated Sequencer||General term for a laboratory instrument used for deciphering the order of bases in a strand of DNA. Sequencers detect fluorescence from different dyes that are used to identify the A, C, G, and T extension reactions.|
|Automated Weather Station||AWS||Land-based AWS systems are designed to record meteorological information, for example the installations in the vicinity of Kirkland and Dismal Island off the Western Antarctic Peninsula.|
|Automatic titrator||Automatic titrator||Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.|
|Autosal salinometer||salinometer||The salinometer is an instrument for measuring the salinity of a water sample.|
|Barometer||Barometer||A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. There are many types of barometers identified by make and model and method of measurement.|
|BASi Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode||BASI CGME||Bioanalytical Systems (BASi) Mercury drop electrodes are generated by the BASi Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode (CGME) in three modes:
DME (Dropping Mercury Electrode) - mercury is allowed to flow freely from the reservoir down the capillary and so the growth of the mercury drop and its lifetime is controlled by gravity. (The optional 100 um capillary is recommended for this mode.)
SMDE (Static Mercury Drop Electrode) - the drop size is determined by the length of time for which the fast-response capillary valve is opened, and the drop is dislodged by a drop knocker. The dispense/knock timing is microprocessor-controlled and is typically coordinated with the potential pulse or square-wave waveform. This mode can also used to generate the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode required for stripping experiments.
CGME (Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode) - the mercury drop is grown by a series of pulses that open the capillary valve. The number of pulses, their duration, and their frequency can be varied by PC control, providing great flexibility in both the drop size and its rate of growth. This CGME mode can be used for both polarographic and stripping experiments. http://www.basinc.com/products/ec/cgme.php
|BASi EC-epsilon 2 Autoanalyzer||BASi EC-epsilon 2||The Bioanalytical Systems EC epsilon is a family of potentiostat/galvanostats for electrochemistry. The most basic epsilon instrument can be used for standard techniques, as well as chronopotentiometry for materials characterization (e.g., characterization of transition metal complexes by cyclic voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis, or of biosensors by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry). Pulse, square wave, and stripping techniques can be added by a software upgrade, and a second channel can be added by a hardware upgrade.
|Beam Trawl||Beam trawl||A beam trawl consists of a cone-shaped body ending in a bag or codend, which retains the catch. In these trawls the horizontal opening of the net is provided by a beam, made of wood or metal, which is up to 12 m long. The vertical opening is provided by two hoop-like trawl shoes mostly made from steel. No hydrodynamic forces are needed to keep a beam trawl open. The beam trawl is normally towed on outriggers, one trawl on each side.
While fishing for flatfish the beam trawl is often equipped with tickler chains to disturb the fish from the seabed. For operations on very rough fishing grounds they can be equipped with chain matrices. Chain matrices are rigged between the beam and the groundrope and prevent boulders/stones from being caught by the trawl. Shrimp beam trawls are not so heavy and have smaller mesh sizes. A bobbin of groundrope with rubber bobbins keeps the shrimp beam trawl in contact with the bottom and gives flatfish the opportunity to escape.
Close bottom contact is necessary for successful operation. To avoid bycatch of most juvenile fishes selectivity devices are assembled (sieve nets, sorting grids, escape holes). While targeting flatfish the beam trawls are towed up to seven knots, therefore the gear is very heavy; the largest gears weighs up to 10 ton. The towing speed for shrimp is between 2.5 and 3 knots.(from: http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/305/en)
|Benchtop pH Meter||Benchtop pH Meter||An instrument consisting of an electronic voltmeter and pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the measurement temperature. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms)
This instrument does not map to the NERC instrument vocabulary term for 'pH Sensor' which measures values in the water column. Benchtop models are typically employed for stationary lab applications.
|Binoculars, Big Eye||Big Eye Binocs||Big eye binoculars generally used for mammal observations. 25x optical.|
|Binoculars, Handheld||Binocs||Handheld binoculars, generally used for bird observations.|
|BIo-Optical Multi-frequency Acoustical and Physical Environmental Recorder II||BIOMAPERII||BIOMAPER II is a set of sensors on a long aluminum frame that resembles the tail of a World War II airplane. A research vessel tows the instrument through the water on a specialized tow cable that sends power to the sensors and brings data back to the ship. People use BIOMAPER II to learn about phytoplankton and zooplankton over areas that are too large to study with the traditional net-and-microscope method. Whereas nets can sample areas up to about 5 meters (16 feet) on a side, BIOMAPER II can record data from 500 meters (1,640 feet) or more of the water column at a time. The instrument's standard suite of sensors were chosen for studying plankton: a five-frequency sonar system, a video plankton recorder and an environmental sensor system (ESS, like the one on MOCNESS). The ESS measures water temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll and light levels. BIOMAPER II also has room for attaching other instruments for specific uses. The instrument's official name is BIOMAPER-II: the BIo-Optical Multi-frequency Acoustical and Physical Environmental Recorder. The Roman numeral II indicates that it's a redesign of the original BIOMAPER, a prototype that was invented and tested in the mid 1990s. (more information).|
|Bio-Optical Profiling System||BOPS||Bio-Optical Profiling System (BOPS) is an updated version of the BOPS originally developed by Smith et al. (1984) and is used to collect optical data. The heart of the BOPS is a Biospherical instruments MER-1048 Spectroradiometer which measures up and downwelling spectral irradiance and upwelling spectral radiance. The MER-1048 also has sensors for Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR), depth, tilt and roll. In addition, temperature and conductivity are measured with a Sea-Bird CTD, chlorophyll fluorescence is measured with a Sea Tech fluorometer and beam transmission with a Sea Tech 25-cm transmissometer. The Mer-1048 acquires all the data 16 times a second, averages it to four records a second and sends it up the cable to a deck box and a Compaq-286 computer which stores the data on the hard disk. Additionally, a deck cell measures the downwelling surface irradiance in four spectral channels. Also surface PAR is measured continuously using a Biospherical Instruments QSR-240 Integrating PAR sensor. The profile data is commonly filtered to remove obvious data spikes and then binned into one-meter averages. Raymond C. Smith, Charles R. Booth, and Jeffrey L. Star, "Oceanographic biooptical profiling system," Appl. Opt. 23, 2791-2797 (1984).|
|BioSonics DT-X Digital Scientific Echosounder||BioSonics DT-X Echosounder||The BioSonics DT-X Digital Scientific Echosounder is available in single or spilt beam configuration. The resultant data set comprises 38 and 120 kHz split beam data. The DT-X Digital Scientific Echosounder is used for stock assessment, biomass estimates, and habitat mapping. DT-X digital transducers are available in a range of frequencies (38, 70, 120, 200, and 420 kHz) and beam patterns in split beam or single beam. Up to 5 transducers can be mulltiplexed for simultaneous data collection in any combination of frequencies and transducer orientations. The BioSonics split beam echosounder data can be analyzed for fish quantity, individual sizes, direction of travel through the acoustic beam. Data analysis is done using BioSonics, Echoview, or Sonar4/5-Pro software (and other options are available). Additional information is available from: BioSonics DT-X Digital Echosounder (http://www.biosonicsinc.com/product-overview.asp), BioSonics (http://www.biosonicsinc.com), Echoview (http://www.echoview.com/), and Sonar4/5-Pro (http://tid.uio.no/~hbalk/sonar4_5/index.htm).|
|Bongo Net||Bongo Net||A Bongo Net consists of paired plankton nets, typically with a 60 cm diameter mouth opening and varying mesh sizes, 10 to 1000 micron. The Bongo Frame was designed by the National Marine Fisheries Service for use in the MARMAP program. It consists of two cylindrical collars connected with a yoke so that replicate samples are collected at the same time. Variations in models are designed for either vertical hauls (OI-2500 = NMFS Pairovet-Style, MARMAP Bongo, CalVET) or both oblique and vertical hauls (Aquatic Research). The OI-1200 has an opening and closing mechanism that allows discrete "known-depth" sampling. This model is large enough to filter water at the rate of 47.5 m3/minute when towing at a speed of two knots. More information: Ocean Instruments, Aquatic Research, Sea-Gear|
|Bottom Sediment Grab Samplers||BSGS||These samplers are designed to collect an accurate representative sample of the sediment bottom. The bite of the sampler should be deep enough so all depths are sampled equally. The closing mechanism is required to completely close and hold the sample as well as prevent wash-out during retrieval. Likewise, during descent the sampler should be designed to minimize disturbance of the topmost sediment by the pressure wave as it is lowered to the bottom.|
|Box Corer||Box Corer||This is one of the simplest and most commonly used sediment corers. The stainless steel sampling box can contain a surface sediment block as large as 50cm X 50cm X 75cm with negligible disturbance. Once the sediment is recovered onboard, the sediment box can be detached from the frame and taken to a laboratory for subsampling and further analysis. The core sample size is controlled by the speed at which the corer is lowered into the ocean bottom. When the bottom is firm, a higher speed is required to obtain a complete sample. A depth pinger or other depth indicator is generally used to determine when the box is completely filled with sediment. Once the core box is filled with sediment, the sample is secured by moving the spade-closing lever arm to lower the cutting edge of the spade into the sediment, until the spade completely covers the bottom of the sediment box. (more from WHOI instrument page).|
|Bran Luebbe AA3 AutoAnalyzer||Bran Luebbe AA3 AutoAnalyzer||Bran Luebbe AA3 AutoAnalyzer
|bucket||bucket||A bucket used to collect surface sea water samples.|
|CalVet||CalVet||The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Vertical Egg Tow device is a type of vertical net tow. Note that mesh sizes may vary.|
|Camera||camera||A camera (could be a 35 mm type), most often used to photograph marine mammals or birds.|
|Camera - Sediment Profile Imaging||SPI Camera||The sediment profile imaging (SPI) system is designed to photograph the sediment-water interface without creating disturbance. A sharp-edged prism cuts cleanly into the sediment to a depth of 15 to 20 cm. The camera is mounted in the top of the prism, and a mirror is used to reflect the sediment image to the camera from the vertical faceplate. Since the sediment is right up against the faceplate, lack of water clarity is never a limitation on this optical method. (from http://www.csc.noaa.gov/benthic/mapping/techniques/sensors/spi.htm)|
|Camera SONY CCD V801||Camera SONY CCD V801||The SONY CCD V801 is a Deep-Sea Power and Light AVCS-101 Autonomous Video Camera for capturing underwater images.|
|Cary 50 spectrophotometer||Cary 50||A Cary 50 spectrophotometer measures absorbance (200-800 nm).|
|CHN Elemental Analyzer||CHN_EA||A CHN Elemental Analyzer is used for the determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content in organic and other types of materials, including solids, liquids, volatile, and viscous samples.|
|Clarke-Bumpus Sampler||Clarke-Bumpus net||"Clarke and Bumpus designed a small two-messenger zooplankton collection system that could be deployed as multiple units on the wire and had a positive means of opening and closing the mouth of the net. A frame attached at the top and bottom to the towing wire supported a cylindrical tube 12.7 cm in diameter and 16 cm long, to which a net was attached. In the mouth of the tube was a flat plate (like a stove pipe damper plate),which closed off the cylinder when the net was deployed. When the first messenger released a spring-loaded latch, the plate was rotated 90 degrees, opening the net; a second messenger rotated it another 90 degrees to close the net. A flowmeter at the back of the cylinder recorded flow through the net." (Wiebe and Benfield, 2003) The instruments were equipped with No. 2 silk nets (22 strands/cm.) and "oblique" hauls were made at a speed of about 2 knots for periods of 25 to 40 minutes.
Wiebe, Peter H. and Mark C. Benfield, 2003. From the Hensen net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography. Progress in Oceanography, 56, pp. 7-136.
|CO2 Coulometer||CO2 coulometer||A CO2 coulometer semi-automatically controls the sample handling and extraction of CO2 from seawater samples. Samples are acidified and the CO2 gas is bubbled into a titration cell where CO2 is converted to hydroxyethylcarbonic acid which is then automatically titrated with a coulometrically-generated base to a colorimetric endpoint.|
|Coastal Ocean Lagrangian Float||COOL float||A COastal Ocean Lagrangian (COOL) float measures compass angle, pressure, and temperature and is constructed from a glass pipe 2.2 m long and with an outer diameter of 9.5 cm. The float consists of the glass pipe, electronics, a volume changer (VOCHA) located within the float, vanes and a compass, a pinger and either a compressee or drop weight. The COOL float is based on the previously designed isopycnal f/h float (Rossby et al., 1994). Glass was used since it has a very small thermal expansion coefficient. Thus, the float will remain on the same density surface even if the temperature and salinity of the water changes but its density doesn't. If a water parcel is displaced vertically, it will either expand or compress due to the change in pressure and not change its potential density. Since the glass float is less compressible than seawater, it will not follow this water parcel. Therefore, a compressee is added to the float to match the float's compressibility to that of seawater. The COOL float has a volume changer (VOCHA) in it to allow the float to follow a water parcel whose density is changing. However, in our short test deployments, we only used the VOCHA for calibration purposes (described later). Eight vanes at a angle to the horizontal and a compass were added to the isopycnal f/h to make the COOL float. As water flows vertically past the float, the vanes will make the float rotate. Measuring the rotation rate with a compass inside the float will provide a measure of the vertical velocity past the float. If the float is isobaric (that is, the float will remain at a constant pressure; it does not have a compressee), the vertical velocity past the float will be mainly due to the vertical velocity of internal waves. However, vanes on the isopycnal COOL float will make it respond to diapycnal velocities instead of vertical velocities. That is, the float will measure only the amount of water flowing past the float whose density is changing.|
|Cod Drifter||Cod Drifter||Short-term drifter incubation deployment. Incubators are filled with seawater and larval cod and food sources, and then placed in situ at various depths to enable investigation of the effect of light and turbulence on feeding success.|
|Cod Pot||Cod Pot||Crab pots modified to catch cod. Variously designed: floating v. static; large v. small; two or more large entrances v. one small entrance, rigid v. collapsible.|
|Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer||CVAFS||A Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescent Spectrophotometer (CVAFS) is an instrument used for quantitative determination of volatile heavy metals, such as mercury. CVAFS make use of the characteristic of mercury that allows vapor measurement at room temperature. Mercury atoms in an inert carrier gas are excited by a collimated UV light source at a particular wavelength. As the atoms return to their non-excited state they re-radiate their absorbed energy at the same wavelength. The fluorescence may be detected using a photomultiplier tube or UV photodiode.|
|Condensation Particle Counter||CPC||Measures the total condensation nucleus concentration of aerosol particles.|
|CTD Falmouth Scientific Instruments||CTD FSI||CTD measurements taken by the Falmouth Scientific Instruments sensor.|
|CTD MOCNESS||CTD MOCNESS||The CTD part of the MOCNESS includes 1) a pressure (depth) sensor which is a thermally isolated titanium strain gauge with a standard range of 0-5000 decibars full scale, 2) A Sea Bird temperature sensor whose frequency output is measured and sent to the surface for logging and conversion to temperature by the software in the MOCNESS computer (The system allows better than 1 milli-degree resolution at 10 Hz sampling rate), and 3) A Sea Bird conductivity sensor whose output frequency is measured and sent to the surface for logging and conversion to conductivity by the software in the computer (The system allows better than 1 micro mho/cm at 10 Hz sampling rate). The data rate depends on the speed of the computer and the quality of the cable. With a good cable, the system can operate at 2400 baud, sampling all variables at 2 times per second. One sample every 4 seconds is the default, although the hardware can operate much faster. (From The MOCNESS Manual)|
|CTD Neil Brown Mark 5||CTD NBIS MK5||The Neil Brown Instrument Systems Mark 5 CTD is used to measure conductivity, temperature, and depth of sea water. The MK5 profiler has a higher sampling rate then the SeaBird SEACAT. (For the GLOBEC Georges Bank project the Mark 5 was instrumented with an expanded suite of sensors and deployed almost exclusively at GLOBEC Standard stations.)|
|CTD Neil Brown Mark III||CTD NBIS MK3||The Neil Brown Instrument Systems Mark III Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) instrument is an integral unit containing pressure, temperature and conductivity sensors with an optional dissolved oxygen sensor in a pressure-hardened casing. Developed in the 1970s, the Neil Brown CTD unit was able to digitize conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements at sufficient speeds to permit oceanographers to study 10 cm features at winch lowering speeds of 30 meters per minute. The most widely used variant in the 1980s and 1990s was the MK3B. The MK3C fitted with an improved pressure sensor to reduce hysteresis was developed to meet the requirements of the WOCE project. The instrument is no longer in production, but is supported (repair and calibration) by General Oceanics.|
|CTD Neil Brown Mark III plus TAPS||CTD NBIS MK3-TAPS||This is an integrated instrument package comprising a Neil Brown Instrument Systems Mark III Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) profiler unit with a Tracor Acoustic Profiling System (TAPS). (see TAPS entry for a description of that instrument)|
|CTD profiler||CTD||The Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) unit is an integrated instrument package designed to measure the conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth) of the water column. The instrument is lowered via cable through the water column and permits scientists observe the physical properties in real time via a conducting cable connecting the CTD to a deck unit and computer on the ship. The CTD is often configured with additional optional sensors including fluorometers, transmissometers and/or radiometers. It is often combined with a Rosette of water sampling bottles (e.g. Niskin, GO-FLO) for collecting discrete water samples during the cast. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.|
|CTD Sea-Bird||CTD Sea-Bird||Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) sensor package from SeaBird Electronics, no specific unit identified. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. See also other SeaBird instruments listed under CTD. More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.|
|CTD Sea-Bird 25||CTD SBE 25||The Sea-Bird SBE 25 SEALOGGER CTD is battery powered and is typically used to record data in memory, eliminating the need for a large vessel, electrical sea cable, and on-board computer. All SBE 25s can also operate in real-time, transmitting data via an opto-isolated RS-232 serial port. Temperature and conductivity are measured by the SBE 3F Temperature sensor and SBE 4 Conductivity sensor (same as those used on the premium SBE 9plus CTD). The SBE 25 also includes the SBE 5P (plastic) or 5T (titanium) Submersible Pump and TC Duct. The pump-controlled, TC-ducted flow configuration significantly reduces salinity spiking caused by ship heave, and in calm waters allows slower descent rates for improved resolution of water column features. Pressure is measured by the modular SBE 29 Temperature Compensated Strain-Gauge Pressure sensor (available in eight depth ranges to suit the operating depth requirement). The SBE 25's modular design makes it easy to configure in the field for a wide range of auxiliary sensors, including optional dissolved oxygen (SBE 43), pH (SBE 18 or SBE 27), fluorescence, transmissivity, PAR, and optical backscatter sensors. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|CTD Sea-Bird 41||CTD SBE 41||The Sea-Bird SBE 41 CTD module was originally developed in 1997 for integration with sub-surface oceanographic floats. It uses MicroCAT Temperature, Conductivity, and Pressure sensors.|
|CTD Sea-Bird 9||CTD SBE 9||The Sea-Bird SBE 9 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 9 is the Underwater Unit and is most often combined with the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) when deployed from a research vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorometer, altimeter, etc.). Note that in most cases, it is more accurate to specify SBE 911 than SBE 9 since it is likely a SBE 11 deck unit was used. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|CTD Sea-Bird 911||CTD SBE 911||The Sea-Bird SBE 911 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 911 includes the SBE 9 Underwater Unit and the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.|
|CTD Sea-Bird MicroCAT 37||CTD MicroCAT 37||The Sea-Bird MicroCAT CTD unit is a high-accuracy conductivity and temperature recorder based on the Sea-Bird SBE 37 MicroCAT series of products. It can be configured with optional pressure sensor, internal batteries, memory, built-in Inductive Modem, integral Pump, and/or SBE-43 Integrated Dissolved Oxygen sensor. Constructed of titanium and other non-corroding materials for long life with minimal maintenance, the MicroCAT is designed for long duration on moorings.
In a typical mooring, a modem module housed in the buoy communicates with underwater instruments and is interfaced to a computer or data logger via serial port. The computer or data logger is programmed to poll each instrument on the mooring for its data, and send the data to a telemetry transmitter (satellite link, cell phone, RF modem, etc.). The MicroCAT saves data in memory for upload after recovery, providing a data backup if real-time telemetry is interrupted.
|CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus||CTD SBE 911plus||The Sea-Bird SBE 911plus is a type of CTD instrument package for continuous measurement of conductivity, temperature and pressure. The SBE 911plus includes the SBE 9plus Underwater Unit and the SBE 11plus Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9plus and SBE 11plus is called a SBE 911plus. The SBE 9plus uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3plus and SBE 4). The SBE 9plus CTD can be configured with up to eight auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|CTD Sea-Bird SEACAT||CTD SEACAT||The CTD SEACAT recorder is an instrument package manufactured by Sea-Bird Electronics. The first Sea-Bird SEACAT Recorder was the original SBE 16 SEACAT developed in 1987. There are several model numbers including the SBE 16plus (SEACAT C-T Recorder (P optional))and the SBE 19 (SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler measures conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth)). This instrument designation is used when make and model are not known. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|CTD Sea-Bird SEACAT 19||CTD SBE 19||The Sea-Bird SBE 19 SEACAT Recorder measures conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth). The SEACAT is self-powered and self-contained and can be deployed in profiling or moored mode. The SBE 19 SEACAT was replaced in 2001 by the 19plus. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|CTD SeaSoar||CTD SeaSoar||CTD measurements taken during a SeaSoar tow.|
|CTD TRIAXUS||CTD TRIAXUS||Sea-bird SBE 9 pumped CTD attached to the Triaxus towed undulating platform. The Triaxus towed undulating vehicle, designed and manufactured by MacArtney, achieves high resolution 3-dimensional surveys of the upper 180m of the water column. The standard sensor package includes a Seabird CTD (with optional secondary C and T sensors), transmissometer, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorometer, and PAR sensor. In addition to this basic configuration, Triaxus can accommodate up to 9 additional sensor packages / sensors. See http://www.macartney.com/systems/remote-technology/triaxus.|
|CTD-fluorometer||CTD-fluorometer||A CTD-fluorometer is an instrument package designed to measure hydrographic information (pressure, temperature and conductivity) and chlorophyll fluorescence.|
|CTD-FRRfluorometer||CTD-FRRf||A CTD-FRRf fluorometer is an instrument package designed to measure hydrographic information (pressure, temperature and conductivity) and chlorophyll fluorescence. (see more at URL: http://www.chelsea.co.uk/Instruments%20FASTtracka.htm) For example, a Chelsea FASTtracka CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) device can be configured with additional sensors to measure fluorescence and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the water column. Fluorescence data collected by the CTD are subsequently calibrated and corrected to give the average concentration of chlorophyll a in the water column. The Chelsea system can be configured as part of a towed package or in a shipboard pumping system. (see more from Chelsea Instruments, Molesey, Surrey, United Kingdom at URL: http://www.chelsea.co.uk/|
|Deep Submersible Incubation Device||Deep-SID||No description has been provided for the Deep Submersible Incubation Device (Deep-SID). The device is capable of collecting a 4 liter sample that can then be pushed to 8 subsample chambers that can contain a fixative. The Deep-SID was used by Dr. Joan Bernhard to conduct in situ grazing experiments during AT18-14.|
|Drifter Buoy||BDFT||Drifter buoy to include the Beardsley Drifter. Generic drifter buoys may be surface or sub-surface buoys that move with the current. They have a variety of instruments attached, providing a platform that allows for the measurement of surface drifts, air pressure and other variables. The Beardsley Drifters are near-surface satellite-tracked drifters used for observations of circulation patterns. They are WOCE-style drifters featuring holey sock drogues. Each drifter has a small (~ 30 cm diameter) surface float with ARGOS transmitter and batteries tethered to a holey sock drogue centered at 15 m below the surface. The drogue, about 10 m tall and 1 m in diameter, is designed to "lock" itself to the water so that the surface float follows the mean water motion at 15 m depth with very little slippage even in high winds. Thus measuring the drifter's position as a function of time provides a Lagrangian measurement of the 15-m ocean current. (http://globec.whoi.edu/jg/info/globec/soglobec/drifters_argos%7Bdir=globec.whoi.edu/jg/dir/globec/soglobec/,data=globec.whoi.edu:80/jg/serv/globec/soglobec/drifters_argos.html1%7D?) WOCE-drifters: http://woce.nodc.noaa.gov/wdiu/diu_summaries/svp/index.htm|
|Druck PDCR 4020 pressure sensor||Druck PDCR 4020||The PDCR 4000 Series provides a complete range of mV output pressure transducers offering advanced levels of measurement accuracy stability and flexibility from a standard production device.|
|Echo sounder - single-beam||Echo Sounder SB||A single-beam echo sounder is an instrument that measures water depth at a single point below the platform by timing pulses of sound reflected on the seafloor. The echo sounder transmits and receives sound, accurately measuring the time it takes to leave the sounder, reach the bottom and return to the sounder. It then converts this information into digital or graphic representations of the bottom depth and relief. The average echo sounder consists of a transmission and reception unit that sends sound signals through the water, receives and decodes information and converts that information into either a graphic or visual form. Attached to the receiver is a transducer that acts as a microphone and a speaker under the water. Sound waves travel at approximately 1500 m/s through the water dependent on water temperature". more from LMS Technologies|
|Electronic Jig Machine||eJig||An electronic jig machine is used to mechanically jig a fish hook or lure with a bait casting reel without using the fishing rod to jig the lure. Normally to jig a fish hook or lure one must move the fishing rod either vertically, horizontally, or jerk the fishing line by hand. The jigging action of this bait cast reel (how rapid and how long in distance the jig will travel) will determine the desired intensity and resonance of the rattle used in the lure to attract or snag the fish. With very simple controls, the equipment functions automatically since it is programmed to suit the actual fishing area, the fishing method and the type of fish.|
|Eppley Longwave Radiometer||Eppley PIR||The Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometer measures longwave (infrared) radiation. It is housed in a weatherproof titanium canister that has been painted with a very flat black paint that absorbs radiation. A small glass dome at the top of the instrument is covered with an 'interference coating' which allows only infrared radiation to come through. Light levels are detected as temperature changes creating voltages in fine wire coil detectors. more from Eppley Labs|
|EPSONDE||EPSONDE||An EPSONDE is a tethered free-fall profiling system used to obtain temperature microstructure and velocity turbulence data in the water column. The EPSONDE profiler carries a variety of slow and fast sensors for measuring temperature microstructure, velocity microstructure, conductivity and depth. These data yield turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates and temperature variance dissipation rates as well as derived quantities such as turbulent diffusivity.|
|Expendable Bathythermograph||XBT||An XBT is an expendable free-fall temperature probe that provides a profile of measured temperature against depth calculated from a fall-rate model. For example, two popular XBT models are the T-5 and T-7 probes from Sippican. More information is available from Lockheed Martin Sippican at URL: http://www.sippican.com/.|
|Expendable Bathythermograph - aircraft||aXBT||An aXBT is an Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) designed to be launched from an aircraft (often a P3 type aircraft) as opposed to a ship. The aXBT collects data in a similar fashion to an XBT, and once the probe hit the sea surface, it free falls through the water column.|
|Expendable Sound Velocimeter||XSV||An Expendable Sound Velocimeter (XSV) system consists of an expendable probe, a data processing/recording system, and a launcher and is used to obtain sound velocity profiles. more from Sippican at URL: http://www.sippican.com/contentmgr/showdetails.php/id/312|
|Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer||FRRf||An FRRf is used for measuring the fluorescence of a sample of phytoplankton photosynthetic competency (Fv/Fm).|
|Fish Cage||Fish Cage||Used to catch fish.|
|Fishing Rod||Fishing Rod||Used to catch fish.|
|Floating Pound Net||Floating Pound Net||Pound nets are passive, stationary gear used for live entrapment of fish species. The gear is composed of fiber netting. Floating pound nets use floating toggles and buoys at the surface and are held taught below the surface using anchors.
A pound net consists of: (1) a net body or crib where the entrapment takes place, (2) a least one mesh heart that helps funnel fish into the crib, and (3) a straight leader or hedging which leads fish toward the crib. Fish swimming along the shore are turned toward the crib by the hedging, guided into the heart, and into the crib where they are removed.
(Description from Maryland Dept of Natural Resources)
|Flounder Trap||Flounder Trap||Based on an historical design used previously in the Gulf of Maine to target Winter Flounder, this experimental trap is a converted lobster trap fitted with a standard crab hoop acting as one long entrance. The crab hoop measures 8 inches across and 2 1/2 inches in height and it was hoped that this hoop would allow flatfish, crabs and some finfish to enter while excluding most lobsters. These traps were built by Kelo Pinkham and Jim Lowe, from Boothbay, Maine. Collapsible square fish traps are also available commercially for eel, crawfish and flounder.|
|Flow Cytometer||Flow Cytometer||Flow cytometers (FC or FCM) are automated instruments that quantitate properties of single cells, one cell at a time. They can measure cell size, cell granularity, the amounts of cell components such as total DNA, newly synthesized DNA, gene expression as the amount messenger RNA for a particular gene, amounts of specific surface receptors, amounts of intracellular proteins, or transient signalling events in living cells. (from: http://www.bio.umass.edu/micro/immunology/facs542/facswhat.htm)|
|Flow Injection Analyzer||FIA||An instrument that performs flow injection analysis. Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an approach to chemical analysis that is accomplished by injecting a plug of sample into a flowing carrier stream. FIA is an automated method in which a sample is injected into a continuous flow of a carrier solution that mixes with other continuously flowing solutions before reaching a detector. Precision is dramatically increased when FIA is used instead of manual injections and as a result very specific FIA systems have been developed for a wide array of analytical techniques.|
|Flow injection lumogallion system with fluorometer||FIA with Fluorometer||An analytical system used to determine concentrations of chemical species in a sample based on the fluorescence from the reaction between lumogallion and the species of interest. The system typically comprises individual components typically including pumps, injection and autosampler valves, preconcentration columns and a fluorometer. The system is normally uniquely assembled for each analysis. (From SeaDataNet)|
|Flow Meter||Flow Meter||General term for a sensor that quantifies the rate at which fluids (e.g. water or air) pass through sensor packages, instruments, or sampling devices. A flow meter may be mechanical, optical, electromagnetic, etc.|
|Fluorescence Microscope Image Analysis System||Fluorescence Microscope||A Fluorescence (or Epifluorescence) Microscope Image Analysis System uses semi-automated color image analysis to determine cell abundance, dimensions and biovolumes from an Epifluorescence Microscope. An Epifluorescence Microscope (conventional and inverted) includes a camera system that generates enlarged images of prepared samples. The microscope uses excitation ultraviolet light and the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption of visible light.|
|Fluorometer||Fluorometer||A fluorometer or fluorimeter is a device used to measure parameters of fluorescence: its intensity and wavelength distribution of emission spectrum after excitation by a certain spectrum of light. The instrument is designed to measure the amount of stimulated electromagnetic radiation produced by pulses of electromagnetic radiation emitted into a water sample or in situ. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.|
|Gas Chromatograph||Gas Chromatograph||Instrument separating gases, volatile substances, or substances dissolved in a volatile solvent by transporting an inert gas through a column packed with a sorbent to a detector for assay. (from SeaDataNet, BODC)|
|Gillnet||Gillnet||Gillnetting uses curtains of netting that are suspended by a system of floats and weights; they can be anchored to the sea floor or allowed to float at the surface. A gillnet catches fish by their gills because the twine of the netting is very thin, and either the fish does not see the net or the net is set so that it traps the fish.|
|Global Positioning System Receiver||GPS||The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based radionavigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis. The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments of the NAVSTAR GPS transmitter system. Ships use a variety of receivers (e.g. Trimble and Ashtech) to interpret the GPS signal and determine accurate latitude and longitude.|
|GO-FLO Bottle||GO-FLO||GO-FLO bottle cast used to collect water samples for pigment, nutrient, plankton, etc. The GO-FLO sampling bottle is specially designed to avoid sample contamination at the surface, internal spring contamination, loss of sample on deck (internal seals), and exchange of water from different depths.|
|GO-FLO Teflon Trace Metal||GO-FLO Teflon TM||GO-FLO Teflon-lined Trace Metal free sampling bottles are used for collecting water samples for trace metal, nutrient and pigment analysis. The GO-FLO sampling bottle is designed specifically to avoid sample contamination at the surface, internal spring contamination, loss of sample on deck (internal seals), and exchange of water from different depths.|
|Gravity Corer||Gravity Corer||The gravity corer allows researchers to sample sediment layers at the bottom of lakes or oceans. The coring device is deployed from the ship and gravity carries it to the seafloor. (http://www.whoi.edu/instruments/viewInstrument.do?id=1079).|
|Greene Bomber||Greene Bomber||
The Greene Bomber is a ENDECO V-fin towed body with overall dimensions of length: 139.7 cm; width at front: 66 cm; width at rear: 142.2 cm; height: 48.26 cm. It is constructed primarily of fiberglass. Since the early 1990's it has been towed just below the sea surface with acoustic and environmental sensors to provide continuous profiles of the water column acoustic backscattering and target strengths from zooplankton with a size range of ~ 1.5 mm to 100 mm, and sea surface environmental properties (temperature, salinity, and fluorescence). It was first used with a BioSonics dual-beam acoustic system operating at 420 kHz and 1 MHz or 120 and 420 kHz. The environmental sensing system (ESS) was the ESS used on MOCNESS. In 1997 the acoustics were changed to a HTI acousitic system with 120 and 420 kHz transducers. In 2010, two additional HTI transducers (43 and 200 kHz) were added. For additional detail see:
Wiebe, P. and C. Greene. 1994. The use of high frequency acoustics in the study of zooplankton spatial and temporal patterns. Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Biol. 7: 133-157.
Wiebe, P.H., D. Mountain, T.K. Stanton, C. Greene, G. Lough, S. Kaartvedt, J. Dawson, and N. Copley. 1996. Acoustical study of the spatial distribution of plankton on Georges Bank and the relation of volume backscattering strength to the taxonomic composition of the plankton. Deep-Sea Research II. 43: 1971-2001.
Wiebe, PH; Stanton, T K; Benfield, M C; Mountain, D G; Greene, CH. 1997. High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering22(3): 445-464.
|Gyro||Gyro||Compass with a motorized gyroscope that tracks true north (heading).|
|Half-meter Net||Half-meter Net||A Half-meter net is a plankton net, 0.5 meters in diameter, with mesh sizes usually between 202 and 500 microns and also usually equipped with a flow meter. For the Northeast Pacific GLOBEC program this net was usually towed vertically from within 5 meters of the bottom to the surface at a rate of 30 meters/minute.|
|Hand-held plankton net||Hand-net||A Hand-held plankton net is a net like a butterfly net only with a standard 333 micron mesh often used by SCUBA divers or from a dock.|
|Hensen Net||Hensen Net||The Hensen Net was invented by Christian Andreas Victor Hensen (February 10, 1835 - April 5, 1924) who was a German researcher considered by many to be the 'father' of Biological Oceanography. Hensen is credited with first using the term 'plankton', and the Hensen Net is one of several sampling devices he invented to help with sample collection. The Hensen Net has a 'reducing cone' forward of the net mouth, a simple closure system and a cod end collection device.
|High Performance Liquid Chromatograph||HPLC||A High-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) is a type of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution. HPLC instruments consist of a reservoir of the mobile phase, a pump, an injector, a separation column, and a detector. Compounds are separated by high pressure pumping of the sample mixture onto a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. The different components in the mixture pass through the column at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase. (http://www.files.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/sep/lc/hplc.html)|
|Hydroacoustic Technology Incorporated echosounder||HTI||The Hydroacoustic Technology Inc multi-frequency system is a towed digital split-beam/single-beam hydroacoustic system designed specifically to assess the abundance and distribution of fish and plankton. Digital signal processing hardware is combined with a MS Windows2000/XP -based user interface to produce results in real time. (http://www.htisonar.com/multi_frequency_echo_sounder.htm)|
|HydroLab Datasonde 4 Multiprobe||HydroLab DS4||Sensors for temperature, conductivity, salinity, specific conductance, TDS, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll a, blue-green algae, Rhodamine WT, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, ambient light (PAR), and total dissolved gas.|
|Hygrometer||Hygrometer||Hygrometers are used for measuring relative humidity. This term is used when details of the make, model number and measurement principle are not known.|
|Hyperspectral Radiometer TriOS ACC||TriOS ACC||TriOS ACC Hyperspectral Radiometer Sensor|
|Hyperspectral Radiometer TriOS ARC||TriOS ARC||TriOS ARC Hyperspectral Radiometer Sensor|
|Ice Corer||Ice Corer||An ice corer is used to drill into deep ice and remove long cylinders of ice from which information about the past and present can be inferred. Polar ice cores contain a record of the past atmosphere - temperature, precipitation, gas content, chemical composition, and other properties. This can reveal a broad spectrum of information on past environmental, and particularly climatic, changes. They can also be used to study bacteria and chlorophyll production in the waters from which the ice core was extracted.|
|Ice Profiling Sonar||Ice Profiler||The ASL Environmental Sciences (e.g. IPS4 or IPS5) ice profiler is an upward looking sonar device deployed on a mooring for measuring ice keel drafts. The distance between the instrument and the bottom of the ice is measured by sonar at an operating frequency of 420 kHz with a beam width of 1.8 degrees and sampling rate of up to 2Hz. Water depth is measured by a pressure sensor and ice draft is calculated by the difference.|
|Improved Meteorological Recorder||IMET||An IMET Recorder is an instrument package that can be mounted on a ship or buoy to record mean weather data including air and sea-surface temperature, incoming short and long-wave radiation, precipitation, humidity, wind velocity and barometric pressure. Each sensor in the system communicates digitally and returns calibrated values to a central data recorder.|
|in-situ incubator||in-situ incubator||A shipboard device that holds water samples under controlled conditions of temperature and possibly illumination. During US JGOFS, Niskin bottle sample water was transferred to amber glass bottles and stored in the dark before analysis.|
|Indian Ocean Standard Net||I.O. Standard Net||The Indian Ocean Standard Net was designed specifically for the International Indian Ocean Exploration project. The net has a mouth area of one square meter and a total length of 5 meters. The net is made of nylon gauze with a mesh size of .333 mm (330um).|
|Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer||ICP Mass Spec||An ICP Mass Spec is an instrument that passes nebulized samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomized and ionized. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are quantified in a quadrupole mass spectrometer.|
|Intelligent Operative Net Sampling System||IONESS||The Intelligent Operative Net Sampling System (IONESS) is a sampling net system similar to a MOCNESS that is towed through the water column and can be controlled to open and close over specified depth intervals.|
|Inverted Microscope||Inverted Microscope||Inverted microscope
An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top, above the stage pointing down, while the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. It was invented in 1850 by J. Lawrence Smith, a faculty member of Tulane University (then named the Medical College of Louisiana). 
Inverted microscopes are useful for observing living cells or organisms at the bottom of a large container (e.g. a tissue culture flask) under more natural conditions than on a glass slide, as is the case with a conventional microscope.
Inverted microscopes are also used in micromanipulation applications where space above the specimen is required for manipulator mechanisms and the microtools they hold, and in metallurgical applications where polished samples can be placed on top of the stage and viewed from underneath using reflecting objectives.
The stage on an inverted microscope is usually fixed, and focus is adjusted by moving the objective lens along a vertical axis to bring it closer to or further from the specimen. The focus mechanism typically has a dual concentric knob for coarse and fine adjustment.
Depending on the size of the microscope, four to six objective lenses of different magnifications may be fitted to a rotating turret known as a nosepiece. These microscopes may also be fitted with accessories for fitting still and video cameras, fluorescence illumination, confocal scanning and many other applications.
|Ion Chromatograph||Ion Chromatograph||Ion chromatography is a form of liquid chromatography that measures concentrations of ionic species by separating them based on their interaction with a resin. Ionic species separate differently depending on species type and size. Ion chromatographs are able to measure concentrations of major anions, such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate, as well as major cations such as lithium, sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range. (from http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/biogeochemical/ic.html)|
|Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer||IR Mass Spec||The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).|
|ISUS Nitrate sensor||ISUS Nitrate||The Satlantic ISUS nitrate sensor is an in-situ UV absorption sensor which calculates nitrate concentration from the seawater spectrum. The ISUS V2 has a 1cm path length, a 200-400 nm wavelength range., and is depth rated to 1000 m. Satlantic's ISUS V3 nitrate sensor uses advanced UV absorption technology to measure nitrate concentration in real-time.|
|JelNet||JelNet||A JelNet is a plankton net system specifically designed to quantify fragile zooplankton ("jellies"). The net is 1.5m^2 at its opening and tapers to a shallow 50 cm deep flat bottom which has a collection "sock" to which a standard MOCNESS cod collar and end bucket were attached. Mesh size of the net is 5mm (3/16 inch). The square net frame is 16mm (5/8 inch) stainless steel and is bridled from each of the corners to a common point above by a 5mm (3/16 inch) stainless steel wire with thimbles spliced into the wire ends. A 45-kg lead ball is attached to a 13mm ( 1/2 inch) oblong stainless ring when the net is fished.|
|JelNet2||JelNet2||A JelNet2 is a 0.61-m bongo frame fitted with paired 1000 micrometer mesh nets to collect larger gelatinous predators. A 45 kg ball was attached beneath the bongo frame to depress the sampler. Although the JelNet2 is designed for the same purpose as a JelNet (to sample fragile zooplankton or "jellies"), it is not a variation on a JelNet.|
|Kemmerer Bottle||Kemmerer Bottle||Kemmerer Sample Bottles are used for collecting water and plankton at specified depths. Kemmerer bottle samplers are made from a variety of materials (stainless steel, acrylic, PVC or Teflon). The bottle type is chosen by researchers based on the research focus and sampling requirements of the field program. Lightweight, relatively small Kemmerer bottles are convenient for near surface water sampling.
The U.S. GLOBEC Georges's Bank project used Kemmerer (Kimmerer) bottles to sample nutrients in the surface (2m) waters.
|Knudsen 320 BR deepwater echosounder||Knudsen 320||The Knudsen 320 B/R deepwater echosounder is a digital data logging system used to measure water depth (e.g. depth of the seafloor). The system is configured to work with different frequency transducers. For example, the Edo 323 B is a 12 kHz High Frequency (HF) transducer or it can be configured to work with an array of 3.5 kHz Low Frequency (LF) transducers mounted in the hull of a vessel.|
|Lagrangian Float||Lagrangian Float||Built at the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory, the Lagrangian Float is not an ARGO float. It is primarily designed to accurately follow the three-dimensional motion of water parcels within the mixed layer, through a combination of neutral buoyancy and high drag provided by a one meter diameter black drogue. Typical buoyancies of a few grams result in vertical velocities relative to the water of a few mm/s, small compared to the cm/s turbulent velocities in the mixed layer. The float’s motion within the mixed layer thus closely imitates that of a planktonic organism. The float can also profile vertically. It sends data and receives commands using the Iridium satellite system. The float is designed to accommodate a wide variety of sensors.|
|Large Aggregate Profiling System||LAPS||The Large Aggregate Profiling System (LAPS) is a camera system developed to characterize millimeter size particle distributions in the water column. Camera systems are integrated with a CTD and transmissometer and therefore have the advantage of simultaneously collecting data on the distribution of suspended particles and aggregates along with the physical structure of the water column (Honjo et al., 1984; Asper, 1987; Gardner et al., 1988).|
|Large Volume Pumping System -WTS-LV||MLVPump||The Large Volume Pumping System-WTS-LV can be one of several different models of Water Transfer Systems (WTS) Large Volume (LV) pumping systems designed and manufactured by McLane Research Labs (Falmouth, MA, USA). The WTS-LV systems are large volume in-situ filtration systems designed to collect sinking particulates. WTS-LV systems are individual in situ, battery-powered, pumping/filtration units that can be deployed at multiple depths per cast to provide information on how particle flux changes with depth. The McLane WTS-LV series of oceanographic pumps draw ambient water through filters and can pump large volumes of seawater during a single cast. The WTS-LV pumps are designed for use from a hydro-wire and employ advanced control algorithms to dynamically optimize flow rates as material accumulates on a filter.|
|Laser Optical Plankton Counter||LOPC||Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC)|
|LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor||LI-COR Biospherical PAR||The LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor is used to measure Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) in the water column. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.|
|LI-COR LI-1000 Data Logger||LI-COR LI-1000||"The LI-1000 DataLogger is a 10 channel datalogger that functions both as a data logging device and a multichannel, autoranging meter. The electronics of the LI-1000 have been optimized for highly accurate measurement of LI-COR radiation sensors which have a current signal" (from LI-COR Datalogging Instruction Manual, p 1). LI-COR began manufacturing these instruments in 1985 and discontinued in 1998. Serial Numbers for this model have the prefix of LDL-XXXX. (www.licor.com)|
|LI-COR LI-190SA PAR Sensor||LI-COR LI-190SA PAR||The LI-190SA Quantum Sensor is used to accurately measure (non-aquatic) Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) in the range of 400-700 nm. Colored glass filters are used to tailor the silicon photodiode response to the desired quantum response. The LI-190SA is also used as a reference sensor for comparison to underwater PAR measured by the LI-192SA or LI-193 Underwater Quantum Sensors.|
|LI-COR LI-192 PAR Sensor||LI-COR LI-192 PAR||The LI-192 Underwater Quantum Sensor (UWQ) measures underwater or atmospheric Photon Flux Density (PPFD) (Photosynthetically Available Radiation from 360 degrees) using a Silicon Photodiode and glass filters encased in a waterproof housing. The LI-192 is cosine corrected and features corrosion resistant, rugged construction for use in freshwater or saltwater and pressures up to 800 psi (5500 kPa, 560 meters depth). Typical output is in um s-1 m-2. The LI-192 uses computer-tailored filter glass to achieve the desired quantum response. Calibration is traceable to NIST. The LI-192 serial numbers begin with UWQ-XXXXX. LI-COR has been producing Underwater Quantum Sensors since 1973.
These LI-192 sensors are typically listed as LI-192SA to designate the 2-pin connector on the base of the housing and require an Underwater Cable (LI-COR part number 2222UWB) to connect to the pins on the Sensor and connect to a data recording device.
The LI-192 differs from the LI-193 primarily in sensitivity and angular response.
193: Sensitivity: Typically 7 uA per 1000 umol s-1 m-2 in water. Azimuth: < ± 3% error over 360° at 90° from normal axis. Angular Response: < ± 4% error up to ± 90° from normal axis
192: Sensitivity: Typically 4 uA per 1000 umol s-1 m-2 in water. Azimuth: < ± 1% error over 360° at 45° elevation. Cosine Correction: Optimized for underwater and atmospheric use.(www.licor.com)
|LI-COR LI-193 PAR Sensor||LI-COR LI-193 PAR||The LI-193 Underwater Spherical Quantum Sensor uses a Silicon Photodiode and glass filters encased in a waterproof housing to measure PAR (in the 400 to 700 nm waveband) in aquatic environments. Typical output is in micromol s-1 m-2. The LI-193 Sensor gives an added dimension to underwater PAR measurements as it measures photon flux from all directions. This measurement is referred to as Photosynthetic Photon Flux Fluence Rate (PPFFR) or Quantum Scalar Irradiance. This is important, for example, when studying phytoplankton, which utilize radiation from all directions for photosynthesis. LI-COR began producing Spherical Quantum Sensors in 1979; serial numbers for the LI-193 begin with SPQA-XXXXX (licor.com).|
|LI-COR LI-6262 Gas Analyser||LI-COR LI-6262||The LI-6262 CO2/H2O Gas Analyzer measures CO2 flux in the environment. It was manufactured by LI-COR Biosciences Inc. (licor.com) from 1990 through 2005 and serial Numbers for this model have the prefix of IRG3-XXXX. The LI-6262 is a differential, non-dispersive, infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The CO2 and H2O measurements are based on the difference in absorption of infrared (IR) radiation passing through two gas sampling cells. The reference cell is used for a gas of known CO2 or H2O concentration, and the sample cell is used for a gas of unknown concentration. Infrared radiation is transmitted through both cell paths, and the output of the analyzer is proportional to the difference in absorption between the two (LI-6262 CO2/H2O Analyzer Operating and Service Manual, Publication Number 9003-59, March, 1996, pg 18).|
|LI-COR LI-7000 Gas Analyzer||LI-COR LI-7000||The LI-7000 CO2/H2O Gas Analyzer is a high performance, dual cell, differential gas analyzer. It was designed to expand on the capabilities of the LI-6262 CO2/ H2O Gas Analyzer. A dichroic beam splitter at the end of the optical path provides radiation to two separate detectors, one filtered to detect radiation absorption of CO2 and the other to detect absorption by H2O. The two separate detectors measure infrared absorption by CO2 and H2O in the same gas stream. The LI-7000 CO2/ H2O Gas Analyzer is a differential analyzer, in which a known concentration (which can be zero) gas is put in the reference cell, and an unknown gas is put in the sample cell.|
|LI-COR LI-840 NDIR Gas Analyzer||LI-COR LI-840||The LI-COR LI-840 is specifically designed for continuous monitoring of CO2 and H2O over a wide range of environmental conditions. The LI-840 is an absolute, non-dispersive, infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer based on a single, interchangeable optical path, and a dual wavelength infrared detection system.|
|Light Detection and Ranging System||LIDAR||The Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system is an active remote sensing system that can be operated in either a profiling or scanning mode using pulses of light to illuminate the terrain. LIDAR data collection involves mounting an airborne laser scanning system onboard an aircraft along with a kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to locate an x, y, z position and an inertial navigation system to monitor the pitch, roll, and heading of the aircraft. By accurately measuring the round trip travel time of the laser pulse from the aircraft to the ground, a highly accurate spot elevation can be calculated. Depending upon the altitude and speed of the aircraft along with the laser repetition rate it is possible to obtain point densities that would likely take months to collect using traditional ground survey methods (June 2010 definition from: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/RESEARCH/RSD/main/lidar/lidar.shtml).The LIDAR transmitter uses a Galium-Aluminum-Arsenic laser which emits energy in pulses at a constant rate and wavelength. The LIDAR has two sounding modes: active and acoustic. Note: A LIDAR system was used during US JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises to acquire SST, DOM and fluorometric pigment data, but there are also bathymetric LIDAR systems.|
|Light-Dark Bottle||Light-Dark Bottle||The light/dark bottle is a way of measuring primary production by comparing before and after concentrations of dissolved oxygen.
Bottles containing seawater samples with phytoplankton are incubated for a predetermined period of time under light and dark conditions. Incubation is preferably carried out in situ, at the depth from which the samples were collected. Alternatively, the light and dark bottles are incubated in a water trough on deck, and neutral density filters are used to approximate the light conditions at the collection depth.
Rates of net and gross photosynthesis and respiration can be determined from measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in the sample bottles.
|Liquid Scintillation Counter||LSC||Liquid scintillation counting is an analytical technique which is defined by the incorporation of the radiolabeled analyte into uniform distribution with a liquid chemical medium capable of converting the kinetic energy of nuclear emissions into light energy. Although the liquid scintillation counter is a sophisticated laboratory counting system used the quantify the activity of particulate emitting (ß and a) radioactive samples, it can also detect the auger electrons emitted from 51Cr and 125I samples.|
|Lobster Trap||Lobster Trap.||A lobster trap (often called a lobster pot) is a baited trap which traps lobsters or crayfish and is used in lobster fishing. A lobster trap can catch multiple lobsters at once and can be a various sizes. An opening permits the lobster to enter a tunnel of netting and proceed into a "chamber" or "kitchen", where there is bait, and then into the "parlor" from which it cannot escape.|
|Longline Fishing Gear||Longline||Longlining employs a central fishing line that can range from one to 50 miles long; this line is strung with smaller lines of baited hooks, dangling at evenly spaced intervals. Longlines can be set near the surface to catch pelagic fish like tuna and swordfish, or laid on the sea floor to catch deepdwelling fish like cod and halibut. (www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/sfw_gear.aspx)|
|LongTrack Profiler||LongTrack||The LongTrack Profiler was a custom data acquisition system that used the ship's SAIL-loop acquisition system with SeaBird conductivity and temperature sensors. The LongTrack Profiler used the R/V Endeavor's IEEE standard serial ASCII instrumentation loop (SAIL) shipboard data communication system to record data from SeaBird conductivity and temperature sensors. The serial ASCII Instrumentation Loop (SAIL) was a hardware and software protocol that was used for collecting data from a variety of instruments aboard the research vessel.|
|Manual Biota Sampler||Manual||Manual Biota Sampler indicates that a sample was collected in situ by a person, possibly using a hand-held collection device such as a jar, a net or their hands.|
|MAPCO2 Drifting Buoy||MAPCO2||The Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) surface drifting buoy designed by NOAA/PMEL is a low profile, high payload buoy. It was used in the SO GasEx project as a drogued drifter instrumented with a variety of autonomous instruments capable of making a coordinated set of physical, geochemical, and biological measurements at high temporal resolutions. These measurements provide a key component in the study of processes controlling air-sea CO2 exchange.|
|MARIANDA VINDTA 3C total inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity analyser||inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser||The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric titration, which simultaneously determines the alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA and/or DIC in open ocean water.|
|Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer||M-AERI||The the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) is a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) sprectoradiometer with calibrations traceable to NIST standards. The M-AERI measures spectra in the infrared (about 3 to 18 micrometers) range with a resolution of about 0.5 cm-1. It uses two infrared detectors cooled to 78 K by a Stirling cycle cooler to reduce the noise equivalent temperature difference to levels well below 0.1 K.
The radiometric calibration of the M-AERI is done continuously using two internal black-body cavities, each with an effective emissivity of greater than 0.998. The mirror scan sequence includes measurements of the reference cavities before and after each set of spectra from the ocean and atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the M-AERI calibration is monitored by episodic use in the laboratory of a NIST-certified water-bath black-body calibration target and residual errors in the M-AERI spectral brightness temperature measurements at temperatures typical of the ocean surface and lower troposphere are typically less than 0.03K.
The interferometer integrates measurements over a pre-selected time interval, usually a few tens of seconds, to obtain a satisfactory signal to noise ratio, and a typical cycle of measurements including two view angles to the atmosphere, one to the ocean, and calibration measurements, takes about ten minutes. The absolute accuracy of the spectral measurements (when expressed as a brightness temperature) is 20-30 mK. The measured spectra are processed in real-time to generate measurements of the skin SST and air temperature at the height of the instrument to accuracies much better than 0.1K.
|MARMAP Bongo Net||MARMAP Bongo Net||A non-opening-closing descendant of the McGowan/Brown Bongo net, consisting of a pair of circular hoops (61 cm in diameter and 30 cm long) joined by a central yoke which is clamped to the towing cable. The nets are 61 cm in diameter and have a cylindrical section 147 cm long and a conical section 153 cm long. Mesh sizes from 0.1 to 0.5 mm have been used, but normally 0.333 mm is used. A flowmeter is present in each hoop [Posgay and Marak (1980), Fig. 1].|
|Mass Spectrometer||Mass Spec||General term for instruments used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions; generally used to find the composition of a sample by generating a mass spectrum representing the masses of sample components.|
|McLane Pump||McLane Pump||McLane pumps sample large volumes of seawater at depth. They are attached to a wire and lowered to different depths in the ocean. As the water is pumped through the filter, particles suspended in the ocean are collected on the filters. The pumps are then retrieved and the contents of the filters are analyzed in a lab.|
|Mechanical Flowmeter||Mechanical Flowmeter||Manufactured by General Oceanics, a mechanical flow meter is used with plankton tows to determine the volume of water which flows through the net. Flow meters are also used in rivers, estuaries, canals, sewer outfalls, pipes, and harbor entrances to determine water velocity and flow distance information.|
|Meteorological Station||MET Station||MET station systems are designed to record meteorological information on board ships or mounted on moorings. These are commonly referred to as EMET (Electronic Meteorological Packages) or IMET (Improved Meteorological Packages) systems. These sensor packages record measurements of sea surface temperature and salinity, air temperature, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, solar and long-wave radiation, humidity and precipitation.|
|Meter Net||Meter Net||A meter net is a plankton net with a one meter diameter opening and a mesh size of .333 mm, towed horizontally, obliquely or vertically, also known as a Ring Net.|
|Methot Net||Methot Net||A Methot Net, a type of plankton net, is used to sample juvenile fish, shrimp, and 'larger' plankton, e.g. 4 millimeters and larger. Named after its designer, Richard D. Methot, of La Jolla, California, it is also called a Methot Trawl. It is a single net with a large square opening or mouth. The net is deployed from the stern and towed behind the vessel. The Methot uses fine mesh (e.g. 4 mm) but with openings slightly larger than other plankton net systems. The larger mesh size allows the net to be towed at higher speeds. A flowmeter suspended in the mouth of net measures the flow of water moving through the net and allows for the calculation of the volume of water sampled. With its larger mouth and faster speed through the water, the Methot is designed to catch the larger zooplankton that are often missed by other plankton net samplers.|
|Metrohm 663 VA Stand mercury electrode||Metrohm 663 VA||The Metrohm 663 VA stand forms the wet chemical part of a polarographic and voltammetric analytical system. It features a mercury electrode, an Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a glassy carbon counter electrode. The size of the mercury drop and the stirrer speed are set manually on the VA Stand. The VA Stand can be operated in Dropping Mercury Electrode (DME), Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE) and Static Mercury Drop Electrode (SMDE) modes. The VA Stand can be controlled by a potentiostat in conjunction with the Metrohm IME663 interface.|
|Microscope-Fluorescence||Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption of visible light. Includes conventional and inverted instruments. From: http://vocab-mappings.whoi.edu/taxonomy/term/109|
|MicroTSG Thermosalinograph||MicroTSG||An externally powered, high-accuracy instrument, designed for shipboard determination of sea surface (pumped-water) conductivity and temperature. Salinity and sound velocity can also be computed.|
|Midwater Trawl||TrawlMid||A mid-water or pelagic trawl is a net towed at a chosen depth in the water column to catch schooling fish such as herring and mackerel. Midwater trawl nets have very large front openings to herd schooling fish toward the back end where they become trapped in the narrow "broiler". The sides of the deployed net are spread horizontally with two large metal foils, called "doors," positioned in front of the net. As the trawler moves forward, the doors, and therefore the net, are forced outward, keeping the net open. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.|
|MIT Vane||MIT Vane|
|MOCNESS||MOCNESS||The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. There are currently 8 different sizes of MOCNESS in existence which are designed for capture of different size ranges of zooplankton and micro-nekton Each system is designated according to the size of the net mouth opening and in two cases, the number of nets it carries. The original MOCNESS (Wiebe et al, 1976) was a redesigned and improved version of a system described by Frost and McCrone (1974).(from MOCNESS manual) This designation is used when the specific type of MOCNESS (number and size of nets) was not specified by the contributing investigator.|
|MOCNESS.25||MOC.25||The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. The MOCNESS-1/4 carries nine 1/4-m2 nets usually of 64 micrometer mesh and is used to sample the larger micro-zooplankton.|
|MOCNESS1||MOC1||The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. The MOCNESS-1 carries nine 1-m2 nets usually of 335 micrometer mesh and is intended for use with the macrozooplankton. All nets are black to reduce contrast with the background. A motor/toggle release assembly is mounted on the top portion of the frame and stainless steel cables with swaged fittings are used to attach the net bar to the toggle release. A stepping motor in a pressure compensated case filled with oil turns the escapement crankshaft of the toggle release which sequentially releases the nets to an open then closed position on command from the surface. -- from the MOCNESS Operations Manual (1999 + 2003).|
|MOCNESS10||MOC10||The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System (MOCNESS) is based on the Tucker Trawl principle (Tucker, 1951). The MOCNESS-10 (with 10 m^2 nets) carries 6 nets of 3.0-mm circular mesh which are opened and closed sequentially by commands through conducting cable from the surface (Wiebe et al., 1976). In this system, "the underwater unit sends a data frame, comprising temperature, depth, conductivity, net-frame angle, flow count, time, number of open net, and net opening/closing, to the deck unit in a compressed hexadecimal format every 2 seconds and from the deck unit to a microcomputer every 4 seconds" (Wiebe et al., 1985).|
|Motoda Net XX13||Motoda XX13||Motoda Net (Motoda, 1971). XX13 indicates a mesh size of 100 microns. This is a "messenger based net system which utilized a framework attached to the towing wire. The circular net (56 cm diameter) was a cylinder (80 cm length)/cone (110 cm length) and was mounted on a wire with a triangular framework so that up to 10 could be towed simultaneously."(P.H. Wiebe and M.C. Benfield, 2003. Progress in Oceanography 56: p.25)
Motoda, S. (1971). Devices of simple plankton apparatus V. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University, 22, 101-106.
|Multi Corer||Multi Corer||The Multi Corer is a benthic coring device used to collect multiple, simultaneous, undisturbed sediment/water samples from the seafloor. Multiple coring tubes with varying sampling capacity depending on tube dimensions are mounted in a frame designed to sample the deep ocean seafloor. For more information, see Barnett et al. (1984) in Oceanologica Acta, 7, pp. 399-408.|
|Multi Parameter Bench Meter||Multi Parameter Bench Meter||An analytical instrument that can measure multiple parameters, such as pH, EC, TDS, DO and Temperature with one device.|
|Multi-Variate Moored System||Multi-Variate Mooring||The Multi-Variate Moored Systems deployed during the US JGOFS EqPac Process Study was a package of integrated meteorological instruments. The Multi-Variate Moored System included instruments for measuring bio-optical and physical variables including water temperature, current direction and velocity, PAR, Lu683 (upwelling radiance, chlorophyll a fluorescence), and salinity. Instrumentation included: (1) a vector measuring current meter (VMCM; EG&G; Weller and Davis, 1980); (2) a fluorometer measuring strobe-stimulated fluorescence (Sea Tech; Bartz et al., 1988); (3) a transmissometer measuring beam transmission at 660 nm (Sea Tech; Bartz et al., 1978); (4) a sensor measuring scalar irradiance or photosynthetic available radiation, PAR, (E-PAR) in the visible waveband (400
|Multibeam Echosounder||Multibeam Echosounder||A Multibeam Echosounder system is used to measure bathymetry (depth of the ocean). The resultant data can be used to map large areas of the seafloor.|
|MultiNet||MultiNet||The MultiNet© Multiple Plankton Sampler is designed as a sampling system for horizontal and vertical collections in successive water layers. Equipped with 5 or 9 net bags, the MultiNet© can be delivered in 3 sizes (apertures) : Mini (0.125 m2), Midi (0.25 m2) and Maxi (0.5 m2). The system consists of a shipboard Deck Command Unit and a stainless steel frame to which 5 (or 9) net bags are attached by means of zippers to canvas. The net bags are opened and closed by means of an arrangement of levers that are triggered by a battery powered Motor Unit. The commands for actuation of the net bags are given via single or multi-conductor cable between the Underwater Unit and the Deck Command Unit. Although horizontal collections typically use a mesh size of 300 microns, mesh sizes from 100 to 500 may also be used. Vertical collections are also common. The shipboard Deck Command Unit displays all relevant system data, including the actual operating depth of the net system.|
|Multiple Instrument Data Acquisition System||MIDAS||MIDAS System
|Multiple Unit Large Volume Filtration System||MULVFS||The Multiple Unit Large Volume Filtration System (MULVFS), consists of multiple (commonly 12) specialized particulate matter pumps, mounted in a frame and tethered to the ship by a cable (Bishop et al., 1985; Bishop and Wood, 2008). The MULVFS filters particulates from large volumes of seawater, although the exact protocols followed will vary for each project.|
|Neuston Net||Neuston Net||Neuston Nets are nets that collect zooplankton that live in the top few centimeters of the sea surface (the neuston layer). This specialized net has a rectangular mouth opening usually 2 or 3 times as wide as deep, i.e. 1 meter by 1/2 meter or 60 cm by 20 cm, with sometimes hollow piping construction to aid in flotation. They are generally towed half submerged at 1-2 kts from the side of the vessel on a boom to avoid the ship's wake.|
|Neutrally Buoyant Sediment Trap||NBST||In general, sediment traps are specially designed containers deployed in the water column for periods of time to collect particles from the water column falling toward the sea floor. The Neutrally Buoyant Sediment Trap (NBST) was designed by researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The central cylinder of the NBST controls buoyancy and houses a satellite transmitter. The other tubes collect sediment as the trap drifts in currents at a predetermined depth. The samples are collected when the tubes snap shut before the trap returns to the surface. (more: http://www.whoi.edu/instruments/viewInstrument.do?id=10286)|
|Niskin bottle||Niskin bottle||A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24 or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.|
|Niskin-1010X||Niskin-1010X||The Model 1010X NISKIN-X External Spring Niskin Water Sampler is a Niskin water sample bottle with the stainless steel closure springs mounted externally. The external closure mechanism is designed to support applications such as trace metal analysis where the inside of the sampler must be totally free of contaminants. The 1010X Niskin bottle, manufactured by General Oceanics Inc., is available in a variety of sizes (sample volume). It can be activated by the GO Devil Messenger (1000-MG) if individually or serially attached to a hydrocable or can be deployed as part of a Rosette multibottle array. The bottles can be teflon-lined and are available as GO-FLO bottles to further avoid sample contamination. (more from General Oceanics)|
|NIWA Underway pCO2 system||pCO2 NIWA||This partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) analysis system sampled from the vessel R/V Tangaroa's underway system. The pCO2 was measured by infrared analysis of the carbon dioxide of air continuously equilibrated with pumped seawater. The pCO2 rig was located on a bench in the temperature controlled laboratory off the fish factory, beside the pH systems (continuous and discrete) and the alkalinity system.additional details are available in the SAGE pCO2 Data Report|
|Nordic 264 Rope Trawl||Nordic Rope Trawl||A Nordic 264 surface rope trawl is a 198-m long, 25-m wide, 35-m vertical trawl net, equipped with a 1.2-cm mesh liner in the cod end and towed at the surface.|
|Norpac Net||Norpac||Developed by Motoda (1957), the North Pacific Standard net or Norpac Net, has a 45 cm mouth diameter with a conical net length of 180 cm and is fit with netting (mesh size, 0.095 mm or .33mm - GG54) made of coarse bolting silk.|
|Nutrient Autoanalyzer||Nutrient Autoanalyzer||Nutrient Autoanalyzer is a generic term used when specific type, make and model were not specified. In general, a Nutrient Autoanalyzer is an automated flow-thru system for doing nutrient analysis (nitrate, ammonium, orthophosphate, and silicate) on seawater samples.|
|Onset Pro v2 temperature logger||Onset Pro v2||The HOBO Water Temp Pro v2 temperature logger, manufactured by Onset Computer Corporation, has 12-bit resolution and a precision sensor for ±0.2°C accuracy over a wide temperature range. It is designed for extended deployment in fresh or salt water.
Operation range: -40° to 70°C (-40° to 158°F) in air; maximum sustained temperature of 50°C (122°F) in water
Accuracy: 0.2°C over 0° to 50°C (0.36°F over 32° to 122°F)
Resolution: 0.02°C at 25°C (0.04°F at 77°F)
Response time: (90%) 5 minutes in water; 12 minutes in air moving 2 m/sec (typical)
Stability (drift): 0.1°C (0.18°F) per year
Real-time clock: ± 1 minute per month 0° to 50°C (32° to 122°F) Additional information (http://www.onsetcomp.com/)
Onset Computer Corporation
470 MacArthur Blvd
Bourne, MA 02532
|Optical Plankton Counter||OPC||An OPC provides quantitative measurements of abundance and sizes of mesozooplankton ranging between approximately 0.25 and 14 mm in Equivalent Spherical Diameter (ESD), and has the capability to integrate measurements from other sensors such as a CTD, fluorometer and Global Positioning System (GPS). It can be deployed on a variety of instruments such as SeaSoar, Aries, Scanfish, MOCNESS, a bongo net or simple towing frame. The data from an OPC are typically transmitted to a data acquisition computer through two conducting wires in a towing cable at real time, but it can also be modified to have an internal memory. Large amounts of data are produced. The procedures employed by OPC users vary from; i) estimating integrated biomass by integrating the OPC size distributions, ii) comparing size distributions between OPC and net samples, and iii) simply isolating a size region in the OPC size distribution which correspond solely to specific taxa, eg. Calanus spp..
from: Zhou, M., Tande, K., 2002. Optical Plankton Counter Workshop. GLOBEC Report 17, University of Tromso, Tromso
|Otter Trawl||Otter Trawl||Otter trawls have large rectangular otter boards which are used to keep the mouth of the trawl net open. Otter boards are made of timber or steel and are positioned in such a way that the hydrodynamic forces, acting on them when the net is towed along the seabed, pushes them outwards and prevents the mouth of the net from closing. The speed that the trawl is towed at depends on the swimming speed of the species which is being targeted and the exact gear that is being used, but for most demersal species, a speed of around 4 knots (7 km/h) is appropriate. More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottom_trawling|
|Oxygen Microelectrode Sensor||O2 microsensor||A miniaturized Clark-type dissolved oxygen instrument, including glass micro-sensors with minute tips (diameters ranging from 1 to 800 um). A gold or platinum sensing cathode is polarized against an internal reference and, driven by external partial pressure, oxygen from the environment penetrates through the sensor tip membrane and is reduced at the sensing cathode surface. A picoammeter converts the resulting reduction current to a signal. The size of the signal generated by the electrode is proportional to the flux of oxygen molecules to the cathode.The sensor also includes a polarized guard cathode, which scavenges oxygen in the electrolyte, thus minimizing zero-current and pre-polarization time.With the addition of a meter and a sample chamber, the respiration of a small specimen can be measured. Example: Strathkelvin Inst. http://www.strathkelvin.com|
|Oyxgen Titrator -Langdon||O2 titrator -Langdon||A Langdon Oyxgen Titrator is an amperometric oxygen titration system developed to measure dissolved oxygen in seawater. The device uses a conventional polarographic electrode in connection with chronoamperometry to overcome many of the problems limiting the performance of oxygen electrodes. Reproducibility is typically better than +/- 0.8 micromolar and essentially drift-free for several weeks. A microcomputer controls all phases of the measuring process: pulse generation, data acquisition, reduction, and storage. Software is used to correct sensor output for temperature dependence and an activity coefficient, a function of temperature and salinity, is computed to correct for salinity. (Langdon, 1984. Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, Volume 31, Issue 11, pp. 1357-1367; Culberson and Huang, 1987. Automated amperometric oxygen titration. Deep Sea Res. 34:875-880).|
|Particulate Organic Carbon/Nitrogen Analyzer||CHN||A unit that accurately determines the carbon and nitrogen concentrations of organic compounds typically by detecting and measuring their combustion products (CO2 and NO).|
|pCO2 Sensor||pCO2 Sensor||A sensor that measures the partial pressure of CO2 in water (pCO2)|
|Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 Spectrophotometer||Perkin Elmer Lambda 35||The Lambda 35 is a double beam UV/Vis spectrophotometer from Perkin Elmer, packing pre-aligned Tungsten and Deuterium Lamps. It has a wavelength range of 190-1100nm and a variable bandwidth range of 0.5 to 4nm.|
|pH Sensor||pH Sensor||General term for an instrument that measures the pH or how acidic or basic a solution is.|
|Photosynthetically Available Radiation Sensor||PAR sensor||A PAR sensor measures photosynthetically available (or active) radiation. The sensor measures photon flux density (photons per second per square meter) within the visible wavelength range (typically 400 to 700 nanometers). PAR gives an indication of the total energy available to plants for photosynthesis. This instrument name is used when specific type, make and model are not known.|
|Phytoplankton Net||Phytoplankton Net||A Phytoplankton Net is a generic term for a sampling net having mesh size of 150 microns or less that is used to collect phytoplankton. It is used only when detailed instrument documentation is not available.|
|Piston Corer||Piston Corer||The piston corer is a type of bottom sediment sampling device. A long, heavy tube is plunged into the seafloor to extract samples of mud sediment. A piston corer uses a "free fall" of the coring rig to achieve a greater initial force on impact than gravity coring. A sliding piston inside the core barrel reduces inside wall friction with the sediment and helps to evacuate displaced water from the top of the corer. A piston corer is capable of extracting core samples up to 90 feet in length.|
|Plankton Net||Plankton Net||A Plankton Net is a generic term for a sampling net that is used to collect plankton. It is used only when detailed instrument documentation is not available.|
|Precipitation Gauge||PrecipGauge||measures rain or snow precipitation|
|Precipitation Sampler||Precip_Sampler||A device that collects a sample of precipitation (rain, hail or snow) as it falls.|
|Precision Spectral Pyranometer||Eppley PSP||This radiometer measures sun and sky irradiance in the range of wavelengths 0.285 to 2.8 microns, including most of the solar spectrum. The PSP is intended to weight the energy flux in all wavelengths equally. It is a "hemispheric receiver" intended to approximate the cosine response for oblique rays. The Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) is primarily used where high accuracy is required or where it is used to calibrate other pyranometers. The PSP outputs a low level voltage ranging from 0 to a maximum of about 12mV depending on sensor calibration and radiation level. An instruction manual provided by Eppley contains the sensor calibration constant and serial number. The Precision Spectral Pyranometer is a World Meteorological Organization First Class Radiometer and comes with a calibration certificate traceable to the World Radiation Reference and a temperature compensation curve. More information is available from Eppley Labs.|
|Pressure Sensor||Pressure Sensor||A pressure sensor is a device used to measure absolute, differential, or gauge pressures. It is used only when detailed instrument documentation is not available.|
|Pump - surface underway ship intake||pump-ship intake||The 'Pump-underway ship intake' system indicates that samples are from the ship's clean water intake pump. This is essentially a surface water sample from a source of uncontaminated near-surface (commonly 3 to 7 m) seawater that can be pumped continuously to shipboard laboratories on research vessels. There is typically a temperature sensor near the intake (known as the hull temperature) to provide measurements that are as close as possible to the ambient water temperature. The flow from the supply is typically directed through continuously logged sensors such as a thermosalinograph and a fluorometer. Water samples are often collected from the underway supply that may also be referred to as the non-toxic supply. Ideally the data contributor has specified the depth in the ship's hull at which the pump is mounted.|
|Pump Air Sampler||Pump Air Sampler||A Pump Air Sampler is an instrument that continuously supplies a flow of air either to an analytical instrument, over a sensor, through filters or from which discrete samples may be drawn for subsequent analysis. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.|
|Pump surface||Pump surface||A source of uncontaminated near-surface seawater pumped onto the deck of the research vessel that can be sampled and analyzed. This pumped seawater supply is from an over-the-side pumping system, and is therefore different from the vessel underway seawater system.|
|QSR-240||QSR-240||Biospherical Instruments QSR-240 Integrating PAR sensor|
|Quick Scatterometer||QuikSCAT||The QuikSCAT is a polar orbiting satellite with an 1800 km wide measurement swath on the earth's surface. Generally, this results in twice per day coverage over a given geographic region. This specialized microwave radar measures near-surface wind speed and direction under all weather and cloud conditions over Earth's oceans. Wind retrievals are done on a 25km x 25km spatial scale.|
|Radiometer||Radiometer||Radiometer is a generic term for a range of instruments used to measure electromagnetic radiation (radiance and irradiance) in the atmosphere or the water column. For example, this instrument category includes free-fall spectral radiometer (SPMR/SMSR System, Satlantic, Inc), profiling or deck cosine PAR units (PUV-500 and 510, Biospherical Instruments, Inc). This is a generic term used when specific type, make and model were not specified.|
|Radiosonde Vaisala RS80-GPS||Radiosonde||Vaisala RS80-GPS radiosondes carried aloft by helium balloons measure atmospheric temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction. The GPS receiver of the GPS-radiosonde measures a shift in Doppler frequencies using a codeless detection and measurement technique. The measured Doppler shifts are a combination of satellite and radiosonde motion and contain the pertinent information for wind speed and direction computation. Doppler frequency measurements of up to 8 satellites are sent to the ground equipment using a low bandwidth (1200 baud) digital link. New independent GPS Doppler measurements from the GPS-sonde are provided every 0.5 seconds for up to 8 channels with 24-bit resolution. The ground equipment computes the wind speed and direction using the differential GPS concept. For more information see www.hobeco.net/pdf/RS80_GPS.pdf.|
|Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter||RaDeCC||The RaDeCC is an alpha scintillation counter that distinguishes decay events of short-lived radium daughter products based on their contrasting half-lives. This system was pioneered by Giffin et al. (1963) and adapted for radium measurements by Moore and Arnold (1996).
Giffin, C., A. Kaufman, W.S. Broecker (1963). Delayed coincidence counter for the assay of actinon and thoron. J. Geophys. Res., 68, pp. 1749-1757.
Moore, W.S., R. Arnold (1996). Measurement of 223Ra and 224Ra in coastal waters using a delayed coincidence counter. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (1996), pp. 1321-1329.
Charette, Matthew A.; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Gonneea, Meagan E.; Henderson, Paul B.; Moore, Willard S.; Scholten, Jan C.; Pham, M. K. (2012). GEOTRACES radium isotopes interlaboratory comparison experiment. Limnology and Oceanography - Methods, vol 10, pg 451.
|Raised footrope whiting trawl||Trawl Raised footrope||The raised footrope whiting (or hake) trawl is a trawl with a specially designed spiny dogfish excluder grate within the extension of a silver hake (whiting) trawl net.|
|Rake||Rake||1 or 2-tined hand-held rakes, very much like garden rakes, used for collecting sea urchins, scallops or other small items from the seafloor by divers|
|Reeve Net||Reeve Net||A Reeve Net is a conventional ring net with a very large acrylic cylindrical cod-end (30 liters) designed to collect fragile gelatinous animals. The net is lowered to a particular depth and then hauled slowly back to the surface (5-10 m/min). Reeve (1981) also described a double net system with no bridle and flotation at the net mouth that is attached to a roller mechanism that rides on a tow wire. The roller system is locked in place by a pressure release device. Once below a set pressure, the roller and nets are released and they float slowly up the wire, gently collecting the zooplankton, without being influenced by the motion of the vessel and associated vertical wire movements. (from Wiebe and Benfield, 2003)|
|Refractometer||Refractometer||A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry). The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law and can be calculated from the composition of the material using the Gladstone–Dale relation.
In optics the refractive index (or index of refraction) n of a substance (optical medium) is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through that medium.
|Remotely Operated Vehicle||ROV||Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) are unoccupied, highly maneuverable underwater robots operated by a person aboard a surface vessel. They are linked to the ship by a group of cables that carry electrical signals back and forth between the operator and the vehicle. Most are equipped with at least a video camera and lights. Additional equipment is commonly added to expand the vehicle’s capabilities. These may include a still camera, a manipulator or cutting arm, water samplers, and instruments that measure water clarity, light penetration, and temperature. More information.|
|Ring Net||Ring Net||A Ring Net is a generic plankton net, made by attaching a net of any mesh size to a metal ring of any diameter. There are 1 meter, .75 meter, .25 meter and .5 meter nets that are used regularly. The most common zooplankton ring net is 1 meter in diameter and of mesh size .333mm, also known as a 'meter net' (see Meter Net).|
|Riso Laboratory Anti-coincidence Beta Counters||Riso Beta Counter||Low-level beta detectors manufactured by Riso (now Nutech) in Denmark. These instruments accept samples that can be mounted on a 25mm filter holder. These detectors have very low backgrounds, 0.17 counts per minute, and can have counting efficiencies as high as 55%. See: http://cafethorium.whoi.edu/website/about/services_radioanalytical_facility_equip.html and http://www.nutech.dtu.dk/Produkter/Dosimetri/NUK_instruments/GM_multicounter.aspx|
|Rotronics||Rotronics Temp||Rotronics used to measure Air Temperature|
|ROV Jason||ROV Jason||The Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason is operated by the Deep Submergence Laboratory (DSL) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). WHOI engineers and scientists designed and built the ROV Jason to give scientists access to the seafloor that didn't require them leaving the deck of the ship. Jason is a two-body ROV system. A 10-kilometer (6-mile) fiber-optic cable delivers electrical power and commands from the ship through Medea and down to Jason, which then returns data and live video imagery. Medea serves as a shock absorber, buffering Jason from the movements of the ship, while providing lighting and a bird’s eye view of the ROV during seafloor operations. During each dive (deployment of the ROV), Jason pilots and scientists work from a control room on the ship to monitor Jason’s instruments and video while maneuvering the vehicle and optionally performing a variety of sampling activities. Jason is equipped with sonar imagers, water samplers, video and still cameras, and lighting gear. Jason’s manipulator arms collect samples of rock, sediment, or marine life and place them in the vehicle’s basket or on "elevator" platforms that float heavier loads to the surface. More information is available from the operator site at URL: http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=8423.|
|S4 Current Meter||S4 Current Meter||The InterOcean S4 current meter is a basic electromagnetic current meter with two pairs of internal electrodes and a flux-gate compass with an integral data logger. The S4 current meter is designed to directly measure with high precision the true magnitude and direction of current motion using two pairs of titanium electrodes located symmetrically on the equator of the sensor. An internal flux-gate compass provides heading information, used to reference current direction to magnetic North or, for fixed installations, the instrument may be operated in an X-Y orthogonal mode whereby the current vector can be referenced to a landform or structure. For more info, see www.interoceansystems.com/s4main.htm.|
|Salinometer||Salinometer||A salinometer is a device designed to measure the salinity, or dissolved salt content, of a solution.|
|Satlantic Micro-profiler II||Satlantic Micro-profiler||The Satlantic Micro-Profiler II is a type of profiling radiometer system. The primary optical measurements are downwelling irradiance (Ed) and upwelling radiance (Lu).The Micro-Pro collects measurements in the following wavelengths: 305, 325, 340, 380, 412, 443, 490, 510, 555, 665, and 683. (Note the additional UV channel).|
|SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor||SBE-43 DO||The Sea-Bird SBE 43 dissolved oxygen sensor is a redesign of the Clark polarographic membrane type of dissolved oxygen sensors. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|SBE 48 Hull Temperature Sensor||SBE48||The SBE 48 is a high-accuracy temperature recorder with non-volatile memory, designed for shipboard determination of sea surface temperature. Installed with magnets just below the water line, the SBE 48's temperature sensor is in contact with the inside of the ship's hull. For more information, see the SBE48 Manual.|
|Scanfish||Scanfish||The Scanfish is a remotely operated, towed, undulating vehicle system designed for collecting 3D profile data of the water column. It includes a Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) profiler as part of the instrument package. The Scanfish housing has fins to allow it to dive and rise, an altimeter to determine the depth of the unit, a pump that moves water through the system and a data cable that reports data back to the ship as the fish is being towed through the water behind the vessel. The Scanfish can be configured with additional sensors, e.g. fluorometer.|
|Sea Tech Fluorometer||Sea Tech Fluorometer||The Sea Tech chlorophyll-a fluorometer has internally selectable settings to adjust for different ranges of chlorophyll concentration, and is designed to measure chlorophyll-a fluorescence in situ. The instrument is stable with time and temperature and uses specially selected optical filters enabling accurate measurements of chlorophyll a. It can be deployed in moored or profiling mode. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. The Sea Tech Fluorometer was manufactured by Sea Tech, Inc. (Corvalis, OR, USA).|
|Sea Tech Transmissometer||Sea Tech Transmissometer||The Sea Tech Transmissometer can be deployed in either moored or profiling mode to estimate the concentration of suspended or particulate matter in seawater. The transmissometer measures the beam attenuation coefficient in the red spectral band (660 nm) of the laser lightsource over the instrument's path-length (e.g. 20 or 25 cm). This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. The Sea Tech Transmissometer was manufactured by Sea Tech, Inc. (Corvalis, OR, USA).|
|Sea-Bird SBE 26 Wave and Tide Recorder||SBE 26 SEAGAUGE||The Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 26 SEAGAUGE is a wave level and tide recorder with a pressure sensor, accurate clock, precision thermometer and optional SBE 4M conductivity sensor. Pressure data are integrated to give sea level or are burst recorded at rates up to 4 Hz to characterize waves. The standard pressure sensor is a 20 meter (45 psia) Quartzonix, with a temperature-compensated quartz element. Optionally, the SBE 26 can be configured with a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor with a temperature-compensated quartz element in 13 ranges, from 1 to 6800 meters (15 to 10,000 psia). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|Sea-Bird SBE 38 Remote Digital Immersion Thermometer||SBE38||Sea-Bird SBE 38 Remote Digital Immersion Thermometer is a seawater temperature sensor in a 10,500 meter (34,400 ft) titanium pressure housing. Real-time temperature data is transmitted in ASCII characters (degrees C or raw counts) via an RS-232 or optional RS-485 serial interface for display or logging by PC or data logger. The SBE 38's measurement range is -5 to +35 C; absolute accuracy is better than 0.001 C (1 mK) and resolution is approximately 0.00025 C (0.25 mK).|
|Sea-Bird SBE-3 Temperature Sensor||SBE-3 Temperature||The SBE-3 is a slow response, frequency output temperature sensor manufactured by Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. (Bellevue, Washington, USA). It has an initial accuracy of +/- 0.001 degrees Celsius with a stability of +/- 0.002 degrees Celsius per year and measures seawater temperature in the range of -5.0 to +35 degrees Celsius. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics|
|Sea-Bird SBE-4 Conductivity Sensor||SBE-4 Conductivity||The Sea-Bird SBE-4 conductivity sensor is a modular, self-contained instrument that measures conductivity from 0 to 7 Siemens/meter. The sensors (Version 2; S/N 2000 and higher) have electrically isolated power circuits and optically coupled outputs to eliminate any possibility of noise and corrosion caused by ground loops. The sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Because the outer electrodes are connected together, electric fields are confined inside the cell, making the measured resistance (and instrument calibration) independent of calibration bath size or proximity to protective cages or other objects.|
|Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor||SeaWiFS||The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), a polar satellite rotating around the Earth 14 times per day, is operated and maintained by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide quantitative data on global ocean bio-optical properties. The NASA/DAAC at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) produces binned data and images as the final SeaWiFS data products. For more information refer to SeaWiFS Project Homepage.|
|Seaglider||Seaglider||The Seaglider is an autonomous underwater vehicle developed through a collaboration between The Applied Physics Laboraty -University of Washington and the University of Washington School of Oceanography. These small, free-swimming vehicles can gather conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data from the ocean for months at a time and transmit it to shore in near-real time via satellite data telemetry. Seagliders make oceanographic measurements traditionally collected by research vessels or moored instruments. They can survey along a transect, profile at a fixed location, and can be commanded to alter their sampling strategies throughout a mission.|
|Seapoint Turbidity Meter||Seapoint Turbidity||The Seapoint Turbidity Meter detects light scattered by particles suspended in water, generating an output voltage proportional to turbidity or suspended solids.|
|SeaSoar||SeaSoar||Towed, undulating vehicle usually equipped with a VPR, TAPS, PAR, CTD|
|SeaWiFS Profiling Multi-Channel Radiometer||SPMR||The SeaWiFS Profiling Multi-Channel Radiometer (SPMR) is a free-falling instrument that is equipped with two sensors, collecting the upwelling irradiance (Ed) and downwelling (Lu) radiance at the following 11 wavelengths: 324, 340, 380, 412, 443, 490, 510, 555, 565, 665, and 683nm. The unit is protected in a long case that contains the majority of the system's electronics, while the optical sensors are located at either end of the case and face in opposite directions (i.e., up and down). These sensors measure the irradiance in units of uW/cm2/nm and the radiance in units of uW/cm2/nm/sr. Tilt and pressure are recorded at the same frequency as the irradiance measurements (6Hz). The SPMR is accompanied by a deck reference sensor, called the SeaWiFS Multichannel Surface Reference (SMSR). This sensor is equipped with the same 11 wavelengths as the SPMR, and is based on the same electronics. Data acquisition is synchronized between the SPMR and the SMSR and is performed at the same (6Hz) frequency.|
|Secchi Disc||Secchi Disc||Typically, a 16 inch diameter white/black quadrant disc used to measure water optical clarity|
|Sediment Trap||Sediment Trap||Sediment traps are specially designed containers deployed in the water column for periods of time to collect particles from the water column falling toward the sea floor. In general a sediment trap has a jar at the bottom to collect the sample and a broad funnel-shaped opening at the top with baffles to keep out very large objects and help prevent the funnel from clogging. This designation is used when the specific type of sediment trap was not specified by the contributing investigator.|
|Sediment Trap - Floating||Sed Trap - Float||Floating sediment traps are specially designed sampling devices deployed to float in the water column (as opposed to being secured to a mooring at a fixed depth) for periods of time to collect particles from the water column that are falling toward the sea floor. In general a sediment trap has a container at the bottom to collect the sample and a broad funnel-shaped opening at the top with baffles to keep out very large objects and help prevent the funnel from clogging. The 'Sediment Trap -Floating' designation is used for a floating type of sediment trap about which no other design details are known.|
|Sediment Trap - IRS||Sed Trap - IRS||Sediment traps are specially designed containers deployed in the water column for periods of time to collect particles from the water column falling toward the sea floor. In general a sediment trap has a jar at the bottom to collect the sample and a broad funnel-shaped opening at the top with baffles to keep out very large objects and help prevent the funnel from clogging. The Indented Rotating Sphere (IRS) Sediment Trap is described in Peterson et al. (Field evaluation of a valved sediment trap. 1993. Limnology and Oceanography, 38, pp. 1741-1761 and Novel techniques for collection of sinking particles in the ocean and determining their settling rates. 2005. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 3, pp. 520-532). The IRS trap consists of four cylindrical modules; a particle interceptor, an IRS valve; a skewed funnel, and an eleven sample carousel (designated IRSC trap). The key to the trap design is the patented IRS valve located between the particle interceptor and particle accumulator portions of the trap. The valve and carousel are regulated by a TattleTale IVA (manufactured by Onset Computer Corp.) microprocessor and custom software. The IRS sediment trap was specifically designed to exclude zooplankton (Trull et al. 2008. Deep-Sea Research II v.55 pp. 1684-1695).|
|Sediment Trap - Particle Interceptor||Sed Trap - Part Int||A Particle Interceptor Trap is prototype sediment trap designed in the mid 1990s to segregate 'swimmers' from sinking particulate material sampled from the water column. The prototype trap used 'segregation plates' to deflect and segregate 'swimmers' while a series of funnels collected sinking particles in a chamber (see Dennis A. Hansell and Jan A. Newton. September 1994. Design and Evaluation of a "Swimmer"-Segregating Particle Interceptor Trap, Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 1487-1495).|
|Self-Contained Underwater Fluorescence Apparatus||SCUFA||The Self-Contained Underwater Fluorescence Apparatus (SCUFA) is a type of Submersible Fluorometer available from Turner Designs that can be deployed in either moored or profiling mode (SCUFA brochure).|
|Sensor Data 6000 Current Meter||SD-6000||The Model SD-6000 MINI current meter is a vector averaging field current meter with recording capacity for up to 6,000 measurements of current speed, direction and temperature. The instrument can be programmed to carry out measurements at given intervals from each minute to each 3 hour via PC or by holding a magnet outside marked points on the instrument.Information is communicated to and from SD-6000 via an infra-red emitter/photodiode pair mounted inside the instrument's transparent top cap. An optoconverter (SD-40) which is positioned over the instrument top cap during communication with a PC converts optosignals to standard RS-232. Download of data to a PC takes a maximum 30 seconds after which data can be immediately processed and displayed. SD-6000 can also be used as a remote monitoring instrument supplying data in real time via a cable.|
|Shimadzu TOC-V Analyzer||Shimadzu TOC-V||A Shimadzu TOC-V Analyzer measures DOC by high temperature combustion method.|
|SLOWDROP Optical Profiler||SLOWDROP||The SLOWDROP Optical Profiler is a free-falling instrument package that "has a Sea-Bird 911+ CTD, two multiwavelength absorption meters (WetLabs ac-9), and a multiexcitation spectrofluorometer (WetLabs SAFIRE) as its basic configuration. The package is deployed on a loose data tether, with sufficient buoyancy on the package to obtain descent rates of 15-20 cm/s. These slow descent rates allow data acquisition on centimeter spatial scales and result in multiparameter characterization of small-scale features." (Cowles, et al.,1998)
References: Cowles, T.J., et al., 1998. Small-scale Planktonic Structure: Persistence and Trophic Consequences. Oceanography, Vol. 11(1), pp. 4-9.
|Slurper Pump||Slurper Pump||The 'Slurper' is a custom designed in situ pumping system that pumps seawater in a way that allows large-volume sampling of pre-determined depth intervals. The 'Slurper' was used during US JGOFS cruises to acquire samples for 234-Thorium and POC/PON analysis (Buesseler et al., 1988). The 'Slurper' sampling system comprised a positive displacement pump coupled to a DC motor. Pump speed and sample volume were controlled via shipboard laptop computer.
Buesseler, K. O., L. Ball, J. Andrews, C. Benitez-Nelson, R. Belastock, F. Chai and Y.Chao. 1998. Upper Ocean Export of Particulate Organic Carbon in the Arabian Sea derived from Thorium-234. Deep-Sea Res. II, Arabian Sea Volume, Vol. 45, No. 10-11, 2461-2488.
|SOIREE Undulator||SOIREE Undulator||The SOIREE Undulator was a torpedo-style fish used during the SOIREE cruise for the collection of underway water samples. A variety of sampling devices are housed within the fish, although little detailed information was provided. It was designed to undulate through a depth profile as it was being towed behind the research vessel.|
|Sonobuoy||Sonobuoy||A Sonobuoy is a relatively small (typically 4 inches, or 124 mm, in diameter and 36 inches, or 910 mm, long) expendable sonar system that is dropped/ejected from aircraft or ships conducting anti-submarine warfare or underwater acoustic research.|
|Sonotronics acoustics transmitter||Sonotronics Transmitter||Individually coded acoustic transmitters generate a unique aural sequence, as well as unique combinations of frequency and ping interval allowing detection by both passive and active receivers. see http://www.sonotronics.com/?page_id=116|
|Spat Bag||Spat Bag||Mesh-netted bag used for collection of spat (juvenile scallops, oysters, etc.). Access to the bag is by a top opening held shut with a drawstring. Strips or panels of black plastic or cloth material, designed to attract spat, are placed into the fine-meshed bag. Bags are closed and hung underwater for a period of time to allow the spat to settle in the collection material. Further description provided here (PDF).|
|Spectrometer||Spectrometer||A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.|
|Spectrometer-WPI UltraPath||Spectrometer -WPI||A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The World Precision Instruments (WPI) UltraPath is a high-performance spectral absorbency system developed by WPI under a collaborative agreement with NASA (Stennis Space Center) for the spectroscopic determination of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seawater and fresh water environments. It was designed for use in the laboratory and in the natural environment. (manufacturer site: www.wpiinc.com)|
|Spectrophotomer-Varian Cary 50UV||Cary 50UV||The Varian Cary 50 UV-Visible Spectrophotometer has a xenon flash lamp and a 1.5nm slit width for measurement of total particulate absorption spectra.|
|Spectrophotometer with Liquid Core Waveguide- WPI||Spectrophotometer with Liquid Core Waveguide- WPI||The World Precision Instruments (WPI) Multiple Pathlength Liquid Core Waveguide (MPLCW) system is an instrument package combining a Liquid Waveguide Capillary Cell (LWCC) and a WPI spectrophotometer via fiber optics. The waveguide is a fiber optic cell that combines an increased optical pathlength (50–500cm) with small sample volume (125–1250µL). Ultra-sensitive absorbance measurements can be performed in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) to detect low sample concentrations in a laboratory or process control environment. (www.whpiinc.com)|
|Spectroradiometer||Spectroradiometer||A Spectroradiometer or Spectraradiometer is an instrument that measures the intensity and nature of electromagnetic radiation. An ocean color radiometer makes the measurements in a manner optimized for the determination of ocean chlorophyll concentration.|
|Speedlog||Speedlog||Measures Doppler near surface vessel speed through the water.|
|Split-Beam Echosounder||Splitbeam Echosounder||"The split-beam echosounder has a transducer which is divided into four quadrants.The target direction is determined by comparing the signals received by each quadrant... The transmission pulse is applied to the whole transducer but the signals received by each quadrant are processed separately...The target strength is estimated from the transducer sensitivity in the relevant direction, namely the beam pattern and the on-axis sensitivity." From "Fisheries Acoustics: Theory and Practice" by E. John Simmonds, D. N. MacLennan, Wiley-Blackwell; 2 edition.|
|SPOT5 Argos Transmitter||SPOT5||The SPOT5 is an Argos transmitter manufactured by Wildlife Computers (Redmond, WA) and designed for deployment on marine mammals, fish, or seabirds. SPOT5 devices use the Argos satellite network to transmit locations of animals with an accuracy of +/- 350-meters. See more information from the manufacturer.|
|Stramin net||Stramin net||A Stramin net is specifically designed to sample plankton near the bottom and one such, designed by F.S. Russell in 1928, the 'stramin' net (Diameter: 1.5 m., Mesh: 6 strands/cm.) was equipped with rollers at the lower edge of its frame in order that it could be safely lowered until it touched the bottom. One "oblique" haul was made from the bottom (or from a depth of 200 m.) to the surface at each station. "It was mounted in an Agassiz trawl frame so that it was centered inside the trawl net, which was
also fixed to the frame and cleared the bottom by approximately 17.8 cm. No provisions were made to prevent contamination of the collection during the lowering of the net to the sea floor or the hauling back to the surface."(Wiebe and Benfield, 2003)
|Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument||SAMI||The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument (SAMI) measures and logs levels of dissolved chemicals in sea and fresh water. It is a plastic cylinder about 6 inches wide and 2 feet long that is self-powered and capable of hourly measurements for up to one year. All data collected are logged to an internal memory chip to be downloaded later. SAMI sensors usually are placed a few feet underwater on permanent moorings, while others on floating drifters sample the water wherever the wind and currents carry them. The instruments have been used by researchers around the globe in a variety of studies since 1999. Dr. Mike DeGrandpre, University of Montana, developed the SAMI between 1990 and 1993 during his postdoctoral work at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Woods Hole, MA, USA). For additional information, see URL: http://www.sunburstsensors.com/ from the manufacturer, Sunburst Sensors, LLC, 1226 West Broadway, Missoula, MT 59802.|
|Submersible Incubation Device-In Situ Microbial Sampler||SID-ISMS||The Submersible Incubation Device-In Situ Microbial Sampler (SID-ISMS) system was developed for the 2011 NSF funded DHAB Metazoans Mediterranean Brine research project and first used on cruise AT18-14. The system includes several integrated components including: a 2 liter incubation chamber; fixation filters and water sample bottles; a High Range CTD (Neil Brown Ocean Sensors, Inc., USA) equipped with two turbidity sensors (Wet Labs ECOView); an Aanderra 2808F oxygen optode; an SDSL-data link; and a sonardyne beacon, a pinger and a 24 volt deep-sea battery. The sensors and sampling devices are mounted on a frame that is attached to the hydro-wire. Lowering rate and recovery speed are controlled by a winch mounted on the surface vessel.|
|Surface Tethered Clap Trap||Clap Trap||The "Clap Trap" is a surface tethered type of sediment trap.|
|Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer||TI Mass Spec||A Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) is an instrument that measures isotopic ratios after electrical excitation of a sample causes ionization of the isotopes.|
|Thermistor - HardHat||Thermistor - HardHat||A HardHat Thermistor is a precision thermistor supported by a surface-following float, made from a "hard hat" filled with foam. It is used to measure Sea Surface Temperature (SST).|
|Thermosalinograph||TSG||A thermosalinograph (TSG) is used to obtain a continuous record of sea surface temperature and salinity. On many research vessels the TSG is integrated into the ship's underway seawater sampling system and reported with the underway or alongtrack data.|
|Total Nitrogen Analyzer||TN analyzer||A unit that accurately determines the nitrogen concentrations of organic compounds typically by detecting and measuring its combustion product (NO). See description document at: http://bcodata.whoi.edu/LaurentianGreatLakes_Chemistry/totalnit.pdf|
|Total Organic Carbon Analyzer||TOC analyzer||A unit that accurately determines the carbon concentrations of organic compounds typically by detecting and measuring its combustion product (CO2). See description document at: http://bcodata.whoi.edu/LaurentianGreatLakes_Chemistry/bs116.pdf|
|towed undulating vehicle||TUV||A towed undulating vehicle is a generic class of instruments. See the data set specific information for a detailed description. These are often prototype instrument packages designed to make very specific measurements.|
|Trace Metal Bottle||TM Bottle||Trace metal (TM) clean rosette bottle used for collecting trace metal clean seawater samples.|
|Trace Metal Pump - Towed||TM Pump-Towed||The Towed Trace Metal (TM) Pump (the pumping system is housed in a 'towfish' that is towed behind the vessel) is a custom designed pumping system for the collection of trace metal clean surface seawater. It was developed by Ken Bruland and Geoffrey Smith (University of California, Santa Cruz).|
|Tracer Injection Sled||Injection Sled||The tracer injection sled is an integrated instrument package that is deployed from a vessel and lowered to the target potential density surface and then towed along that surface at 0.5 m/s while the tracer is injected. The sled is neutrally buoyant and is towed at the end of a 2-meter tether attached to the end of the CTD cable, which removes much of the ship motion. To follow lower frequency displacements of the target surface, the winch is controlled automatically with feedback from a SeaBird 911plus CTD system (Ledwell et al., 1998).The CTD has dual pumped C/T sensors mounted at the front of the sled to sample water not perturbed by the thermal wake of the sled. A WET Labs fluorometer is also present along with mounted injection orifices, pumps, batteries, fluid reservoirs, and control electronics for the injection.|
|TRACOR Acoustic Profiling System||TAPS||The TRACOR Acoustic Profiling System (TAPS) is custom designed zooplankton sampler developed by V. Holliday of Tracor Inc. It uses a four transducer array operating at frequencies 265 kHz, 420 kHz, 1.1 MHz, and 3 MHz. The transducer array is designed to provide information on the distribution of individual organisms ranging in size from individual copepods to nauplii at distances of 2-3 m.|
|Traction Winch||Traction Winch||The traction winch, as it pertains to marine deep water applications, is the primary component of a system designed to provide a significant tractive or load-bearing effort to subsea cable or umbilical. Conventional traction winch systems utilize two sheaves with multiple cable grooves to apply this tractive effort via elliptically reeving cable around the two sheaves. Advancements in sampling instrument packages and vehicles to perform more complex, intervention tasks at greater depths have placed greater demands on the cables and umbilicals linking them to the surface. The traction winch system was designed to address the challenges associated with increased wire or cable tension. (information is from Chapter 11 'Double Drum Traction Winch Systems for Oceanographic Research', in the HANDBOOK OF OCEANOGRAPHIC WINCH, WIRE AND CABLE TECHNOLOGY, 3rd Edition, 2001, Editor, John Bash, http://www.unols.org/publications/winch_wire_handbook__3rd_ed/)|
|Transmissometer||Transmissometer||A transmissometer measures the beam attenuation coefficient of the lightsource over the instrument's path-length. This instrument designation is used when specific manufacturer, make and model are not known.|
|Trawl_custom||Custom Trawl||A net towed through the water column designed to sample free-swimming nekton or fish, varies in design depending on the research project.|
|Tucker Trawl||Tucker Trawl||The Tucker Trawl is a non-opening/closing net with a rectangular mouth opening first built by G.H. Tucker in 1951. The original had a 183 cm by 183 cm flexible rectangular mouth opening 914 cm long net with 1.8 cm stretched mesh for the first 457 cm and 1.3 cm mesh for last 457 cm. 152 cm of coarse plankton or muslin netting lined the end of the net. Tucker designed the net to collect animals associated with the deep scattering layers, principally euphausiids, siphonophores, and midwater fish. (from Wiebe and Benfield, 2003). Currently used Tucker Trawls usually have 1-m2 openings.|
|Turner Designs 700 Laboratory Fluorometer||TD-700||The TD-700 Laboratory Fluorometer is a benchtop fluorometer designed to detect fluorescence over the UV to red range. The instrument can measure concentrations of a variety of compounds, including chlorophyll-a and fluorescent dyes, and is thus suitable for a range of applications, including chlorophyll, water quality monitoring and fluorescent tracer studies. Data can be output as concentrations or raw fluorescence measurements.|
|Turner Designs Fluorometer -10||Turner Fluorometer -10||The Turner Designs Model 10 fluorometer (manufactured by Turner Designs, turnerdesigns.com, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used to measure Chlorophyll fluorescence. No information could be found for this specific model.|
|Turner Designs Fluorometer -10-AU||Turner Fluorometer -10AU||The Turner Designs 10-AU Field Fluorometer is used to measure Chlorophyll fluorescence. The 10AU Fluorometer can be set up for continuous-flow monitoring or discrete sample analyses. A variety of compounds can be measured using application-specific optical filters available from the manufacturer. (read more from Turner Designs, turnerdesigns.com, Sunnyvale, CA, USA)|
|Underwater Vision Profiler||UVP||A description of the UVP instrument can be found in the following publication: Picheral, M., L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, D. M. Karl, G. Iddaoud, and G. Gorsky. 2010. The Underwater Vision Profiler 5: An advanced instrument for high spatial resolution studies of particle size spectra and zooplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. 8: 462-473. (access the PDF at URL: http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/cmoredata/LMO/Guidi/Picheral_2010.pdf)|
|Underway radioactive cesium monitor||Uway Cs Monitor||An OSU-constructed PVC enclosure housed a water-tight 2"x2" NaI(Tl) Scintillation detector unit [Canberra Model 802-335]. Pulse signals were processed in a customized compact digital MCA [Avicenna RX1200] and output was captured and displayed on PC through custom spectroscopy software [Avicenna RayPanel].|
|unknown||unknown||The correct value is not known to and not computable by the creator of this information. However a correct value probably exists.|
|UV Spectrophotometer-Shimadzu||UV Spectrophotometer-Shimadzu||The Shimadzu UV Spectrophotometer is manufactured by Shimadzu Scientific Instruments (ssi.shimadzu.com). No other information could be found.|
|Vector Averaging Current Meter||VACM||Vector Averaging Current Meter|
|Vector Measuring Current Meter||VMCM||The Vector Measuring Current Meter (VMCM) is an instrument for obtaining ocean current data. It is often deployed on moorings for long periods of time (years). The VMCM employs biaxial propellers and has undergone extensive tests and calibrations (Weller and Davis 1980). It is a well-characterized mechanical current meter and has been used for benchmarking other current meters (e.g., Dickey et al. 1998a). The two sets of orthogonal cosine response propeller sensors directly measure components of horizontal velocity, and direction is determined with a flux-gate compass (estimated resolution of 1.4 and accuracy of 5) to allow rotation of components into geographical coordinates.
Dickey, TD, AJ Plueddemann, and RA Weller, 1998a: Current and water property measurements in the coastal ocean. The Sea, KH Brink and AR Robinson, Eds., Vol. 10, John Wiley and Sons, 367-398.
Emery, WJ and Thomson, RE. 2004. Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography. 638pp.
Weller, R. A., and R. E. Davis, 1980: A vector measuring current meter. Deep-Sea Res., 27A, 565-582.
Gilboy, TP, TD Dickey, DE Sigurdson, X. Yu, and D. Manov. 2000. An Intercomparison of Current Measurements Using a Vector Measuring Current Meter, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, and a Recently Developed Acoustic Current Meter
|Vector-Averaging Wind Recorder||VAWR||The Vector-Averaging Wind Recorder (VAWR) is a system designed by researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) to make surface meteorological measurements. The standard WHOI Vector Averaging Wind Recorder (VAWR) of the late 1980s through early 1990s was mounted on a toroid buoy (Dean and Beardsley, 1988). In addition to wind speed and direction, the VAWR could also be configured to record water temperature and conductivity data from sensors mounted at 1 meter depth on the mooring bridle of the buoy (Trask et al., 1995).
Dean, JP and RC Beardsley. 1988. A vector-averaging wind recorder (VWAR) system for surface meteorological measurements in CODE (Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment). Published by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole Mass. Series: CODE technical report no. 44., WHOI-88-20, WHOI Technical report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). 74 pp.
Trask, Richard P.; Way, Bryan S.; Ostrom, William M.; Allsup, Geoffrey P.; Weller, Robert A. 1995. Arabian Sea mixed layer dynamics experiment : mooring deployment cruise report R/V Thomas Thompson cruise number 40, 11 October-25 October 1994. (WHOI DLA URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1912/482)
|Vertical Multi-layer Plankton Sampler||VMPS||The Vertical Multiple Plankton Sampler (VMPS), a variation of the multiple plankton sampler (MPS), is a specially designed opening-closing, multi-layer net system used for collecting zooplankton (Terazaki and Tomatsu, 1997). The mesh size and mouth opening can vary depending on research focus. The VMPS is towed through depth ranges with nets closed at known intervals to yield estimations of standing stock, vertical distribution and diel vertical migration.
The VMPS as described by Wiebe and Benfield (2003) is named the Ocean Research Institute Vertical Multiple Plankton Sampler (ORI-VMPS) with specifications: 100 cm x 100 cm rectangular mouth opening multiple net system that can be equipped with 4 to 10 nets, 510 cm long with 0.33 mm nylon mesh. Nets are opened/closed by surface commands down transmitted via conduction cable to an underwater unit (see Plate 31 C (Wiebe and Benfield, 2003)).References:
Terazaki, M. and Tomatsu, C. (1997). A vertical multiple opening and closing plankton sampler. Journal of Advanced Marine Science Technological Society, 3, 127-132.
Wiebe, Peter H. and Mark C. Benfield, 2003. From the Hensen net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography. Progress in Oceanography, 56, pp. 118.
|Video Plankton Recorder||VPR||The Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) is a video-microscope system used for imaging plankton and other particulate matter in the size range from a few micrometers to several centimeters. The VPR is essentially an underwater microscope. It consists of four video cameras (with magnifying optics) synchronized at 60 fields per second (fps) to a red-filtered 80 W xenon strobe (pulse duration = 1 microsecond). The current lens on each camera can be adjusted to provide a field of view between 5 mm and 10 cm. Use of higher magnification lenses is currently being explored for viewing protozoans (<1 micrometer resolution). The four cameras are set for concentric viewing fields so that a range of up to four magnifications can be viewed simultaneously, allowing a wide size range of plankton to be sampled. Depth of field is adjusted by the lens aperture setting, and the volume sampled in each video field ranges from about 1 ml to 1 liter, depending on lens settings. The cameras have been configured for stereoscopic viewing as well.A strobe on the other arm illuminates the imaged volume and flashes 60 times per second, producing 60 images per second of the particles and plankton in the water. The images are then saved internally on a computer hard disk and later plotted.
Deployment: Most commonly, the VPR is mounted in a frame and lowered into the water from the stern of the ship. Sometimes, a CTD also is mounted next to the VPR to collect depth, temperature, and salinity information at the same time as each video image. The instrument is lowered down through the water to a maximum depth of 350 meters to generate a profile of plankton/particle abundance and taxon group along with temperature and salinity. In addition to the towed configuration for mapping plankton distributions, it is possible to deploy the VPR in a fixed position (on a mooring) for viewing plankton swimming behaviors in two or three dimensions. The VPR instrument system has been used in both configurations, and deployment on ROVs has been proposed.
|Voltammetry Analyzers||Voltammetry Analyzers||Instruments that obtain information about an analyte by applying a potential and measuring the current produced in the analyte.|
|Water Quality Multiprobe||Water Quality Multiprobe||An instrument which measures multiple water quality parameters based on the sensor configuration.|
|Water Temperature Sensor||Water Temp Sensor||General term for an instrument that measures the temperature of the water with which it is in contact (thermometer).|
|Weather Transmitter||WXT520||The ship-mounted Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT520 measures: Wind speed and direction; Liquid precipitation: rainfall, duration, intensity; Barometric pressure; Air temperature and Relative humidity. (for more information see http://www.vaisala.com/en/products/multiweathersensors/Pages/WXT520.aspx)|
|Wet Labs CSTAR Transmissometer||WL CSTAR Trans||A highly integrated opto-electronic design to provide a low cost, compact solution for underwater measurements of beam transmittance. The instrument is capable of either free space measurements, or through the use of an optical flow tube, flow-through sampling with a pump. It can be used in profiling, moored, or underway applications. more information from Wet Labs|
|Wet Labs ECO Puck BB2F-VMG||ECO Puck BB2F-VMG||The ECO BB measures scattering at 117 degrees, the angle determined as a minimum convergence point for variations in the volume scattering function (VSF) induced by suspended materials and water itself. As a result, the signal measured by this meter is less determined by the type and size of the materials in the water and is more directly correlated to the concentration of the materials. Conversely, the meter provides unparalleled accuracy for any single-angle measurement in determining the optical backscattering coefficient: an important parameter for remote sensing and in many in-water bio-optical applications.|
|Wet Labs ECO Triplet||Triplet||The Wet Labs ECO Triplet is a special-order, three-optical-sensor instrument available from WET Labs (wetlabs.com) in a user-defined configuration. The Triplet addresses the need for multiple simultaneous scattering and fluorescence sensors for autonomous vehicles and unattended measurement platforms. For example, possible configurations include any combination of three of the following: Blue scattering, Green scattering, Red scattering, Chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence, Phycoerythrin fluorescence, Phycocyanin fluorescence, Rhodamine fluorescence, or Uranine (fluorescein) fluorescence.|
|Wet Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorometer||ECO AFL/FL||The Environmental Characterization Optics (ECO) series of single channel fluorometers delivers both high resolution and wide ranges across the entire line of parameters using 14 bit digital processing. The ECO series excels in biological monitoring and dye trace studies. The potted optics block results in long term stability of the instrument and the optional anti-biofouling technology delivers truly long term field measurements. more information from Wet Labs|
|WetLabs FLNTU||FLNTU||The WetLabs ECO FLNTU is a dual-wavelength, single-angle sensor for simultaneously determining both chlorophyll fluorescence and turbidity. It detects light scattered by particles suspended in water, generating an output voltage proportional to turbidity or suspended solids. Scaling factors are used to convert the voltage readings to values representing chlorophyll concentration and turbidity expressed in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs).|
|WETStar CDOM Fluorometer||WETStar CDOM Fluor||The WETStar CDOM fluorometer measuring fluorescence as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption.|
|WETStar ECO FLNTU||WETStar ECO FLNTU||The ECO FLNTU is a dual-wavelength, single-angle sensor for simultaneously determining both chlorophyll fluorescence and turbidity.|
|Wildlife Computers TDR||TDR||Time depth recorders (TDR's) manufactured by Wildlife Computers, Redmond WA) are designed for studies of seals, penguins, fish, and marine mammals. Standard TDR's are mounted externally on the animal's body, where they record temperature and depth. See more information from the manufacturer.|
|Winkler Oxygen Titrator||Winkler Titrator||A Winkler Oxygen Titration system is used for determining concentration of dissolved oxygen in seawater.|
|WP-2 Plankton Net||WP-2||The WP-2 net is a variety of Ring Net for zooplankton but which is capable of being closed by means of a Nansen bottle-type release messenger weighing 0.8 kg and which can be equipped with a digital flow meter for determining the amount of water passing through the plankton net. The rings may have a variety of sizes (57cm, 70cm, 75 cm, or 1m internal diameter) and the nets which make up this device are in two parts, a cylindrical upper part and a conical lower part. The closing ring is between the two net segments. (more at KC Denmark)|
|YSI Professional Plus Multi-Parameter Probe||YSI ProPlus||The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. More information from the manufacturer.|
|YSI Sonde 6-Series||YSI Sonde 6-Series||YSI 6-Series water quality sondes and sensors are instruments for environmental monitoring and long-term deployments. YSI datasondes accept multiple water quality sensors (i.e., they are multiparameter sondes). Sondes can measure temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, depth, turbidity, and other water quality parameters. The 6-Series includes several models. More from YSI.|
|Zooplankton Pump - gas centrifugal||Zoo Pump Gas Centrifugal||The Pacer gas-powered centrifugal pump is a water pumping system for zooplankton sampling.|
|Zooplankton Pump - gas powered diaphragm||Zoo Pump3||This kind of diaphragm pump, manufactured by Homelite and run on gasoline, is called a positive displacement pump because it pumps a specific volume for each pump cycle. Diaphragm pumps move fluids more slowly than centrifugal pumps but treat the animals more gently and they can handle thicker mud and larger amounts of solids. They also tolerate air being drawn into the pump and can be run dry without damage. In 2002, Homelite was acquired and became Riverside Pump Manufacturing, Inc. Diaphragm pumps feature a straight through self priming design and the rubber elastomer diaphragm and flapper valves are easily replaced on site.|
|Zooplankton Pump - pneumatic diaphragm pump||Zoo Pump2||Pneumatic diaphragm pump|